Nigeria - Agriculture

Although it depends heavily on the oil industry for its budgetary revenues, Nigeria is predominantly still an agricultural society. Approximately 70 percent of the population engages in agricultural production at a subsistence level. Agricultural holdings are generally small and scattered. Agriculture provided 41 percent of Nigeria's total gross domestic product (GDP) in 1999. This percentage represented a normal decrease of 24.7 percent from its contribution of 65.7 percent to the GDP in 1957. The decrease will continue because, as economic development occurs, the relative size of the agricultural sector usually decreases.

Nigeria's wide range of climate variations allows it to produce a variety of food and cash crops . The staple food crops include cassava, yams, corn, coco-yams, cow-peas, beans, sweet potatoes, millet, plantains, bananas, rice, sorghum, and a variety of fruits and vegetables. The leading cash crops are cocoa, citrus, cotton, groundnuts (peanuts), palm oil, palm kernel, benniseed, and rubber. They were also Nigeria's major exports in the 1960s and early 1970s until petroleum surpassed them in the 1970s. Chief among the export destinations for Nigerian agricultural exports are Britain, the United States, Canada, France, and Germany.

A significant portion of the agricultural sector in Nigeria involves cattle herding, fishing, poultry, and lumbering, which contributed more than 2 percent to the GDP in the 1980s. According to the UN Food and Agriculture Organization 1987 estimate, there were 12.2 million cattle, 13.2 million sheep, 26.0 million goats, 1.3 million pigs, 700,000 donkeys, 250,000 horses, and 18,000 camels, mostly in northern Nigeria, and owned mostly by rural dwellers rather than by commercial companies. Fisheries output ranged from 600,000 to 700,000 tons annually in the 1970s. Estimates indicate that the output had fallen to 120,000 tons of fish per year by 1990. This was partly due to environmental degradation and water pollution in Ogoniland and the Delta region in general by the oil companies.

Decline in agricultural production in Nigeria began with the advent of the petroleum boom in the early 1970s. The boom in the oil sector brought about a distortion of the labor market. The distortion in turn produced adverse effects on the production levels of both food and cash crops. Governments had paid farmers low prices over the years on food for the domestic market in order to satisfy urban demands for cheap basic food products. This policy, in turn, progressively made agricultural work unattractive and enhanced the lure of the cities for farm workers. Collectively, these developments worsened the low productivity, both per unit of land and per worker, due to several factors: inadequate technology, acts of nature such as drought, poor transportation and infrastructure, and trade restrictions.

As food production could not keep pace with its increasing population, Nigeria began to import food. It also lost its status as a net exporter of such cash crops as cocoa, palm oil, and groundnuts. According to U.S. Department of State FY2001 Country Commercial Guide, Nigeria's total food and agricultural imports are valued at approximately US$1.6 billion per year. Among the major imports from the United States are wheat, sugar, milk powder, and consumer-ready food products.

Efforts since the late 1970s to revitalize agriculture in order to make Nigeria food self-sufficient again and to increase the export of agricultural products have produced only modest results. The Obasanjo administration, however, has made agriculture the highest priority of its economic policy.

User Contributions:

amir eissa abdellah
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Sep 29, 2010 @ 6:06 am
I ask about Nigarian Agriculture Engineering TThe information ,I need it as soon as possible
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Nov 20, 2010 @ 9:09 am
term paper on agricultural development in nigeria.
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Dec 17, 2010 @ 1:01 am
what is the level of agricultural farming in nigeria today.which is the most consumed agric product in nigeria.please send me information of how to start agricultural farmimg.
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Jan 3, 2011 @ 5:05 am
what is the level of agricultural farming in Nigeria today.which is the most consumed agriculture product in Nigeria.please send me information of how to start agricultural farming.
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Jan 28, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
please, i want to know the influence of agro-chemical in the life of Nigeria farmers. and usefull is it to them?
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Feb 5, 2011 @ 3:15 pm
What is the drainege procedure for agricultural drainage project?
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Feb 21, 2011 @ 12:12 pm
what is the meaning of farm settlement, and in what way has it contributed to food production in nigeria
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Mar 20, 2011 @ 1:01 am
What are the problems of agriculture in west africa
moh'd mubarak
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Mar 30, 2011 @ 5:05 am
The development in the nigeria's agricultural sector from 2000 to 2009.
Government reforms in the agricultural sector from 2000 to 2009.
Contributions of the nigerian agricultural sector to the Nigeria's GDP and GNP from 2000 to 2009.
The state of mechanise farming in Nigeria from 2000 to 2009.
Irrigation in the Nigerian agricultural sector from 2000 to 2009.
The current state of small, medium and large scale farming in nigeria.
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Apr 3, 2011 @ 2:14 pm
It is a nice work, I really appreciate the brains behind this!
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May 3, 2011 @ 2:02 am
what is the potential capacity of irrigation sector like regulated irrigation driplines. Especially which cities' farmers in Nigeria use irrigation driplines.
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May 13, 2011 @ 8:08 am
please, i want to know why nigeria agriculture is predominantly subsistence.i need the reply qick.
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May 22, 2011 @ 1:01 am
A table showing agricultaral production and GDP from 2000 to 2010
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Jun 14, 2011 @ 10:10 am
The role of agricultural extension workers in the advancement of the agricultural sector in nigeria
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Jun 20, 2011 @ 7:07 am
The role of Agricultural engineering in the development of Agriculture in Nigeria.Please i need the information very urgent.
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Jul 11, 2011 @ 10:22 pm
Governments' policies have a great role in improving the level of agriculture in Nigeria.
We have the resources but not fully utilized and the little that are being utilized are misused.
Our government just needs to be firm in their policies especially in terms of banning or VAT on importation so as to encourage our local farmers to produce more.
We citizens also have our own role by supporting all stakeholders and make sure all hands are on deck...
Good people, Great Nation...
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Jul 22, 2011 @ 5:05 am
My personal request was agricultural exportation in nigeria. so please if i can get an instant report on my email i would be mostly delighted. thanks a lot for your assistance.
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Jul 28, 2011 @ 10:10 am
What is the current state of Agriculture in Nigeria? Has the 2011 Nigeria budget allocation to agriculture really been implemented into it or diverted?
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Aug 18, 2011 @ 3:03 am
When will nigerian youths embrace agriculture in full flesh?
Sani Nuhu Tsafe
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Sep 9, 2011 @ 1:13 pm
Now, its time for Nigeria to weak up to assists their farmers by given them farm input such as fertilizer, inproved seed, chemicals,for better production
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Oct 5, 2011 @ 7:07 am
what is d way out of this dulldrum?.with d changes in climate condition ,what is the agric scientist doing in that regard?
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Nov 14, 2011 @ 3:03 am
Please i want to get answers on the factors militating against Nigerian agriculture.
I will be most grateful if my request is given urgent and immediate consideration.
Chidi Ihemeje
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Jan 26, 2012 @ 10:10 am
I have the biase to invest in Agriculture.I have a firm conviction that there are opportunities in the Nigeria Agricultural sector.Would you please give me the necessary information that help me in my judgement as to how to go about my choice of investment.
zainab
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Feb 18, 2012 @ 4:16 pm
this is a good innitiative,please continue!!!
AKAMADU ROSEMARY
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Feb 27, 2012 @ 5:05 am
What importance are the universities of Agriculture,are to the development of Agriculture in Nigeria?
Ifeanyi
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May 27, 2012 @ 3:03 am
I want to know the pecentage rate of agriculture in nigeria
Nasir
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Jul 12, 2012 @ 4:04 am
I like to know the present situation of agricultural practice in Nigeria.
naroka jonathan
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Jul 26, 2012 @ 2:14 pm
what is the current situation concerning allocation of loans to Nigeria agriculture/farmers.
Tesleem
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Oct 17, 2012 @ 3:03 am
What are the major role in nigeria agricultural sector that can yield alot of income to the famer durin exportation of agricultura goods
Taiwo
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Dec 2, 2012 @ 12:00 am
Pls I need information on the impact of agricultural product on nigeria economic development,thanks
Edozie
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Dec 11, 2012 @ 1:13 pm
I need information on career aspiration of agricultural undergraduate students
TORGBE
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Jan 14, 2013 @ 12:12 pm
What is state and agriculture in nigeria? To what extend does agriculture plays a significant role in nigera's economy?
Adeoye akorede o
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Mar 2, 2013 @ 10:10 am
Relavant of agricultural engineering to agricultural extension in the growth of economy
kenneth Hassan
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Apr 14, 2013 @ 9:09 am
what is the aspect of technology in agricultural development process in Nigeria?
Samson joseph musa
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May 11, 2013 @ 7:07 am
What are the importance of crop improvement to nigerian's agriculture?
precious
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Oct 14, 2013 @ 10:10 am
what are problems facing agriculture and what are benefits of commercial farming in Nigeria

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