Spain - Science and technology
The Council for Scientific Research, founded in 1940, coordinates research in science and technology and operates numerous constituent research institutes in a wide variety of disciplines. The Royal Academy of Exact, Physical, and Natural Sciences, founded in 1916, is the nation's chief scientific academy. The National Science Museum and the National Railway Museum are located in Madrid, and two geology museums are located in Barcelona. Spain has 32 universities, colleges, and polytechnics offering courses in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 31% of university enrollment. In 1993, total expenditures on research and development amounted to 0.9% if GNP; 343 technicians and 1,305 scientists and engineers per one million people were engaged in research and development.