The population of Turkmenistan in 2003 was estimated by the United Nations at 4,867,000, which placed it as number 113 in population among the 193 nations of the world. In that year approximately 4% of the population was over 65 years of age, with another 38% of the population under 15 years of age. There were 98 males for every 100 females in the country in 2003. According to the UN, the annual population growth rate for 2000–2005 is 1.54%, with the projected population for the year 2015 at 5,820,000. The population density in 2002 was 12 per sq km (30 per sq mi).
It was estimated by the Population Reference Bureau that 45% of the population lived in urban areas in 2001. The capital city, Ashgabat, had a population of 525,000 in that year. Other large cities include Chardzhou (164,000), Tashauz (114,000), Mary (94,000), and Nebit-Dag (89,000). According to the United Nations, the urban population growth rate for 2000–2005 was2.1%.