Turkmenistan is essentially self-sufficient in energy resources, with natural gas by far the most plentiful resource. Proven reserves of natural gas are among the world's largest; in early 2002 they amounted to 2.9 trillion cu m, or about 2% of the world's total. Production in 2001 (excluding gas-flared or recycled) totaled 46.5 billion cu m. Natural gas is found primarily near Mary; these fields in south-central Turkmenistan account for 80% of annual production. Turkmenistan is a major exporter of natural gas to the former USSR, and is the only republic, besides Russia, to export to Europe. Several former Soviet republics now owe significant amounts of money to Turkmenistan, inclucing Ukraine, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Azerbaijan. In October 2000 Turkmenistan agreed to resume gas exports to Ukraine, which had been interrupted since spring of 1999 because Ukraine had owed $281million at that point. Turkmenistan is developing alternatives to Russia's pipeline network as part of its strategy to increase natural gas exports. About 49% of primary energy consumption was fueled by natural gas in 1998, with the remainder coming from oil. In 2001, Turkmenistan's total installed electrical capacity was 3,930,000 kW. In 2000, net electricity generation was 9.3 billion kWh, of which more than 99% came from fossil fuels. In the same year, consumption of electricity totaled 7.7 billion kWh.
Oil is produced in small quantities in the west, on the Cheleken Peninsula, near Nebitdag and Kum Dag, and along the Caspian lowlands. Proven oil reserves totaled 546 million barrels at the beginning of 2002. In 2001 production amounted to about 159,000 barrels per day. A ten-year program was in place to raise production to almost 1 million barrels per day by 2010. Refining capabilities are limited and antiquated; both refineries are slated for modernization and expansion to help meet increased demand.