Few Mongolian nationals live outside the country, but 3.4 million persons of Mongolian extraction lived in the Inner Mongolia province of China. About 500,000 live in Russia—in the Buryat and Kalmyk republics. Between 1955 and 1962, some 20,000 Chinese laborers entered Mongolia to work on construction projects, but in 1964 Mongolia expelled about 2,000 Chinese nationals who had refused to take part in an agricultural resettlement program, and another 1,700 in 1983. In addition, Mongolia expelled 7,000 ethnic Chinese between 1983 and 1993. Since the independence of Kazakhstan, many Kazakhs have emigrated.
Nomadic herders account for nearly half of Mongolia's population. Mongolia is one of the only developing countries where internal migration to rural areas exceeds migration to cities. The number of families formally registered as nomadic herders grew from an estimated 74,000 in 1990 to 170,000 in 1995.
In 2000 the total number of migrants was 8,000, with virtually no refugees. The migration rate for that year was -6.5 per 1,000 population. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.