Deforestation and the resulting soil erosion cause significant environmental problems in Cambodia. By 1985, logging activities, the clearing of the land for agricultural purposes, and the damage from the Vietnam war resulted in the destruction of 116 square miles of forest land. Between 1983 and 1993, the nation's forest and woodland were reduced by an additional 11.3% to 11.7 million ha. In 1995, there were only 9 million ha. The nation has 120.6 cubic km of renewable water resources with 94% used for farming activity and 1% used for industrial purposes. Most rural dwellers do not have access to pure water. Cambodia's cities produce 0.2 million tons of solid waste per year. Three-fourths of Cambodia's wildlife areas have been lost through the destruction of its forests, and strip mining for gems in the western part of the country poses an additional threat to the nation's biodiversity and wildlife habitats. Natural fisheries have been endangered by the destruction of Cambodia's mangrove swamps. As of 2001, 23 of Cambodia's mammal species and 18 of its bird species were endangered. Endangered species in Cambodia include 3 species of gibbon (pileated, crowned, and caped), several species of wild dog and wild cat, leopard, tiger, Asian elephant, Sumatran rhinoceros, Thailand brow-antlered deer, kouprey, giant catfish, Indian python, Siamese crocodile, and estuarine crocodile.