Peru - Organizations
Although Congress had earlier authorized an organic cooperative law, nothing was done until 1941, when a number of agricultural cooperatives were created by the Ministry of Agriculture. During the early years of the military junta, cooperatives were seen as a primary device for restructuring the agricultural sector. Most expropriated commercial estates were converted to cooperative farms, while smaller holdings were consolidated into units collectively owned by farmers' associations. Subsequent reform programs, culminating in the Inca Plan of 1974, pointed toward the restructuring of Peruvian society, with the social-property company as a basic unit. However, this corporatist idea was gradually deemphasized, and when the civilian government took over in 1980, most of the reforms of the previous decade were scaled down or abandoned.
The national Society of Industries, founded in 1896, coordinates the branches of organized industry. The Office of Small Industry and the Institute for the Development of Manual Arts were established in 1946 to revive the weaving and spinning skills of Incas and to coordinate the handicraft workers in textile and other industries, such as gold and silver crafts. Numerous chambers of commerce continue to function. Of Peru's many learned societies, perhaps the most important is the Academia Peruana, affiliated with the Royal Spanish Academy of Madrid. Others include the Peru Association for the Advancement of Science and the Geographic Society of Lima.
National youth organizations include the National Association of Scouts and Guides, the Federation of Peruvian Students, and YMCA/YWCA, as well as a number of religious youth groups. International organizations with national chapters include Amnesty International, CARE Peru, and the Red Cross.