PERU





Peru 1963
Photo by: Vibe Images

Republic of Peru

República del Perú

CAPITAL : Lima

FLAG : The national flag consists of red, white, and red vertical stripes.

ANTHEM : Himno Nacional, beginning "Somos libres, seámoslo siempre" ("We are free; let us remain so forever").

MONETARY UNIT : The nuevo sol (ML), a paper currency of 100 céntimos, replaced the inti on 1 July 1991 at a rate of I 1,000,000 = ML 1, but, in practice, both currencies are circulating. There are coins of 1, 5, 10, 20, and 50 céntimos and 1 nuevo sol, and notes of 10, 20, 50, and 100 nuevos soles and 10,000, 50,000, 100,000, 500,000, 1,000,000, and 5,000,000 intis. ML 1 = $0.2898 (or $1 = ML 3.45) as of May 2003.

WEIGHTS AND MEASURES : The metric system is the legal standard.

HOLIDAYS : New Year's Day, 1 January; Labor Day, 1 May; Day of the Peasant, half-day, 24 June; Day of St. Peter and St. Paul, 29 June; Independence Days, 28–29 July; Santa Rosa de Lima (patroness of Peru), 30 August; Battle of Anzamos, 8 October; All Saints' Day, 1 November; Immaculate Conception, 8 December; Christmas, 25 December. Movable holidays include Holy Thursday and Good Friday.

TIME : 7 AM = noon GMT.


INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION

Peru is a charter member of the UN, having joined on 31 October 1945, and belongs to ABEDA, APEC, CAN, CCC, ECLAC, FAO, G-15, G-19, G-24, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO (correspondent), ITU, LAES, LAIA, MONUC, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, RG, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UPU, WCL, WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO and WTrO.

DEPENDENCIES

Peru has no territories or colonies.

Read about the Culture of Peru. More about Peru's Culture.

Read about the Geography of Peru.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Alexander, Yonah (ed.). Combating Terrorism: Strategies of Ten Countries. Ann Arbor, Mich.: University of Michigan Press, 2002.

Alisky, Marvin. Historical Dictionary of Peru. Metuchen, N.J.: Scarecrow, 1979.

Becker, David G. The New Bourgeoisie and the Limits of Dependency: Mining, Class and Power in "Revolutionary" Peru. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1983.

Bingham, Hiram. Lost City of the Incas: The Story of Machu Picchu and Its Builders. New York: Duell, Sloan and Pearce, 1949.

Cleaves, Peter S., and Martin J. Scurrah. Agriculture, Bureaucracy, and Military Government in Peru. Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1980.

Collier, David. Squatters and Oligarchs: Authoritarian Rule and Policy Change in Peru. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1976.

Descola, Jean. Daily Life in Colonial Peru, 1710–1820. New York: Macmillan, 1968.

Dobyns, Henry F., and Paul L. Doughty. Peru: A Cultural History. New York: Oxford University Press, 1976.

Ferreira, Cesar. Culture and Customs of Peru. Westport, Conn.: Greenwood Press, 2003.

Figueroa, Adolfo. Capitalist Development and the Peasant Economy of Peru. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1984.

Fisher, John Robert. Peru. Santa Barbara, Calif.: Clio Press, 1989.

Garcilaso de la Vega. Royal Commentaries of the Incas and General History of Peru. 2 vols. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1966.

Garretón, Manuel Antonio, and Edward Newman, (eds.). Democracy in Latin America: (Re) constructing Political Society. New York: United Nations University Press, 2001.

Goodsell, Charles T. American Corporations and Peruvian Politics. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1974.

Gootenberg, Paul Eliot. Between Silver and Guano: Commercial Policy and the State in Postindependence Peru. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1989.

——. Imagining Development: Economic Ideas in Peru's "Fictitious Prosperity" of Guano, 1840–1880. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.

Griffiths, Nicholas. The Cross and the Serpent: Religious Repression and Resurgence in Colonial Peru . Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1996.

Haas, Jonathan, Shelia Pozorski, and Thomas Pozorski (eds.). The Origins and Development of the Andean State. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1987.

Health Care in Peru: Resources and Policy. Boulder, Colo.: Westview Press, 1988.

Health in the Americas, 2002 edition. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organization, Pan American Sanitary Bureau, Regional Office of the World Health Organization, 2002.

Hemming, John. The Conquest of the Incas. New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1970.

Herndon, William Lewis. Exploration of the Valley of the Amazon, 1851–1852. New York: Grove Press, 2000.

Herz, Monica. Ecuador vs. Peru: Peacemaking amid Rivalry. Boulder, Colo.: Lynne Rienner, 2002.

Herzog, Kristin. Finding Their Voice: Peruvian Women's Testimonies of War . Valley Forge, Pa.: Trinity Press International, 1993.

Hudson, Rex A. (ed.). Peru in Pictures. Minneapolis: Lerner, 1987.

Keatinge, Richard W. (ed.). Peruvian Prehistory: An Overview of Pre-Inca and Inca Society. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1988.

Lockhart, James. Spanish Peru, 1532–1560: A Social History, 2nd ed. Madison, Wisconsin.: University of Wisconsin Press, 1994.

Lowenthal, Abraham F. (ed.). The Peruvian Experiment: Continuity and Change Under Military Rule. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Martin, Luis. The Kingdom of the Sun: A Short History of Peru. New York: Scribner, 1974.

Mauceri, Philip. State under Siege: Development and Policy Making in Peru . Boulder, Colo.: Westview, 1996.

Moseley, Michael Edward. The Incas and their Ancestors: the Archaeology of Peru. New York: Thames and Hudson, 1992.

Palmer, David Scott. Peru: The Authoritarian Legacy. New York: Praeger, 1980.

Prescott, William Hickling. History of the Conquest of Peru. Rev. ed. New York: New American Library, 1981 (orig. 1847).

Peru: A Country Study . 4th ed. Edited by Rex A. Hudson. Washington, D.C.: Library of Congress, Federal Research Division, 1993.

The Peruvian Economy and Structural Adjustment: Past, Present, and Future . Edited by Efraín Gonzales de Olarte. Boulder, Colo.: L. Rienner, 1996.

The Peru Reader: History, Culture, Politics . Edited by Carlos Ivan Degregori, Robin Kirk, and Orin Starn. Durham, N.C.: Duke University Press, 1995.

St. John, Ronald Bruce. The Foreign Policy of Peru . Boulder, Colo.: L. Rienner, 1992.

The Shining Path of Peru. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1992.

Stepan, Alfred C. The State and Society: Peru in Comparative Perspective. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press, 1978.

Stokes, Susan Carol. Cultures in Conflict: Social Movements and the State in Peru . Berkeley, Calif.: University of California Press, 1995.

Thorp, Rosemary. Economic Management and Economic Development in Peru and Colombia. Pittsburgh, Pa.: University of Pittsburgh Press, 1991.

Werlich, David P. Admiral of the Amazon: John Randolph Tucker, his Confederate Colleagues, and Peru. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1990.

User Contributions:

Katherine
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Aug 12, 2007 @ 10:22 pm
I think you should put on the International Cooperation information. It would help me with research. But everything else is so much help. Thanks to whoever does this!
:]

-Katherine
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Nov 16, 2010 @ 4:04 am
This website has some really good information about different countries of the world.
Happyfaceyt
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Oct 6, 2012 @ 1:01 am
Awesome... nice way of separating the topics... really useful :) Huge thanks to whoever is doing this!!

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