The country is mostly savanna, although the moist and mountainous east supports tropical evergreen and hardwood forests. Trees include teak and mahogany, knobthorn, msasa, and baobab. Among the numerous flowers and shrubs are hibiscus, spider lily, leonotus, cassia, tree wisteria, and dombeya.
Mammals include elephant, lion, buffalo, hippopotamus, rhinoceros, gorilla, chimpanzee, baboon, okapi, giraffe, kudu, duiker, eland, sable, gemsbok, waterbuck, zebra, warthog, lynx, aardvark, porcupine, fox, badger, otter, hare, bat, shrew, and scaly anteater.
Snakes and lizards abound. The largest lizard, the water monitor, is found in many rivers, as are several species of crocodile. About 500 species of birds include the ant-thrush, barbet, bee-eater, bishop bird, bulbul, bush-warbler, drongo, emerald cuckoo, grouse, gray lourie, and pheasant.