Tanzania has developed a serious urban housing shortage as a result of the influx of people to the towns. All development planning has included considerable financial allocations for urban housing schemes. With private enterprise unable to meet the demand, the government in 1951 launched a low-cost housing program, which has been continued since that time. A significant number of dwellings are constructed from mud and poles or from mud bricks and blocks. A smaller percentage of dwellings are made of concrete and stone, or of baked and burned bricks. Piped indoor water is available to about one-fourth of households, and over half have private toilets. In 1995, it was estimated that about 70% of the urban population was living in temporary shelters of squatter/slum areas. The housing deficit in urban areas was estimated at 1.2 million units.