The labor force numbered 1.7 million in 1998, and the unemployment rate was about 31 percent in 2000. Economic instability, according to United Nations Development Program reports, makes it difficult for the government to uphold adequately the right to social insurance and protection (guaranteed by article 47 of the constitution), the right to work and labor protection (Article 43), the right to health protection (article 36), and the right to a favorable working environment (article 37). The state does not meet its commitments to protect family and orphans (article 49), the interests of mothers, children and youth (article 50), or the interests of persons with disabilities (article 51). The average monthly wage in 1999 reached $25, insufficient to provide a decent standard of living. Many workers were using outdated technology
|Household Consumption in PPP Terms|
|Country||All Food||Clothing and footwear||Fuel and power a||Health care b||Education b||Transport & Communications||Other|
|Data represent percentage of consumption in PPP terms.|
|a Excludes energy used for transport.|
|b Includes government and private expenditures.|
|SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.|
without adequate safety regulations, and work-place conditions were poor and often dangerous. Under the Soviet regime, unions were government-controlled; independent ones began to emerge in 1991, but their influence is limited partly due to the increasing size of the private sector.