450 B.C. Luxembourg is settled by 2 Belgic tribes, the Treveri and the Mediomatrici.
53 B.C. The Romans conquer the territory.
963. Luxembourg gains independence under Siegfried, the Count d'Ardennes.
1354. Luxembourg is made a duchy by the Holy Roman Emperor, Charles IV.
1555-56. The Duchy is incorporated into the Spanish Netherlands.
1618-48. During the Thirty Years War, the territory of Luxembourg is devastated by warfare, famine, and disease.
1684. France conquers Luxembourg but returns the Duchy to Spain in 1697.
1714. Luxembourg is ceded to Austria and undergoes an economic boom, especially after 1735.
1795. The Duchy is again conquered by France.
1815. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Luxembourg becomes a Grand Duchy under the king of the Netherlands, William I.
1830. William's heavy taxation leads the people of Luxembourg to support a Belgian revolution against his rule, and the French-speaking areas of the nation become part of Belgium.
1842. Luxembourg joins a Prussian-led customs union.
1867. Luxembourg gains full independence, with its neutrality guaranteed by the great European powers.
1879. The introduction of new methods of steel production leads to the rapid expansion of the steel industry.
1914. Germany invades Luxembourg at the start of World War I.
1919. All adults are granted the right to vote.
1922. The Belgium-Luxembourg Economic Union (BLEU) is formed.
1929. The government introduces legislation encouraging holding companies to relocate to Luxembourg.
1940. Germany occupies the Grand Duchy during World War II.
1947. Luxembourg joins the Benelux Economic Union, formed between Belgium, the Netherlands, and the Grand Duchy.
1949. The nation joins NATO.
1951. A Goodyear tire plant is built near Colmar-Berg.
1952. Luxembourg joins the European Coal and Steel Community.
1957. The Grand Duchy becomes a founding member of the European Community.
1965. Du Pont opens a chemical plant in Contern.
1974. The nation's steel industry is consolidated into a single company group, ARBED.
1986. The government-backed satellite company, SES, is created.
1991. The first ASTRA satellite is launched, marking the emergence of SES as Europe's most prominent satellite and cable television provider.
1999. Luxembourg is the first nation to meet the requirements for entry into the European Monetary Union, which it joins in January.