1881. Russians defeat Turkmenistan tribes and annex Turkmenistan into the Governorship of Turkestan.
1888. Russians start construction of railway from Krasnovodsk (now Turkmenbashi) to Ashgabat.
1916. Widespread revolt in central Asia against the tsarist government's use of local troops during World War I.
1917. Russian Revolution and Civil War begin.
1920. Soviet General Frunze captures Ashgabat, ending the anti-Soviet government in Turkmenistan.
|Household Consumption in PPP Terms|
|Country||All food||Clothing and footwear||Fuel and power a||Health care b||Education b||Transport & Communications||Other|
|Data represent percentage of consumption in PPP terms.|
|a Excludes energy used for transport.|
|b Includes government and private expenditures.|
|SOURCE: World Bank. World Development Indicators 2000.|
1921. New Economic Policy begins in Soviet Union.
1924. The Turkmenistan Soviet Socialist Republic is established.
1929. Collectivization begins in central Asia, widespread famine as Turkmens resist.
1930s. Pastoral nomadism ends in Turkmenistan; cotton production increases.
1959. Construction begins on the Karakum Main Canal.
1990. Turkmenistan declares its autonomy from the Soviet Union in August.
1990. Saparmurat Niyazov is elected president in October.
1991. Turkmenistan declares its independence from the Soviet Union.
1991. The Communist Party is renamed the Democratic Party of Turkmenistan in December.
1992. Niyazov introduces the Ten Years of Prosperity economic reforms.
1992. Turkmenistan joins the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO), designed to coordinate economic policies among Iran, Turkey, and Pakistan and given new life by the inclusion of the 5 Central Asian Soviet republics.
1993. New Turkmenistan currency, the manat, is introduced.
1998. The financial collapse in Russia affects Turkmenistan's energy trade.
1999. Niyazov is named president for life.