Reforms during the 1990s brought mixed results to the Mongolian people. While they removed state control over the economy, allowed private businesses, and diversified
|GDP per Capita (US$)|
|SOURCE: United Nations. Human Development Report 2000; Trends in human development and per capita income.|
|Distribution of Income or Consumption by Percentage Share: Mongolia|
|Survey year: 1995|
|Note: This information refers to expenditure shares by percentiles of the population and is ranked by per capita expenditure.|
|SOURCE: 2000 World Development Indicators [CD-ROM].|
international trade, they also brought widespread poverty, a diminishing social-welfare system , especially in health care and education, a rise in organized crime, and huge gaps in personal income.
In 1999, per capita GDP was estimated at US$2,320. According to the United Nations Development Program's Human Development Report, a statistical survey of the standard of living of the world's nations, Mongolia was ranked 110th, just behind China and Egypt, but just ahead of El Salvador and Bolivia. This is largely because of the strong education and health systems built during the single party (1924-1991) era, which remain strong despite declines in the 1990s. In 2000, the enrollment rate at primary and secondary schools stood at 84 percent, and most people had access to health care services. The government plans to increase spending in these areas, however, to return them to the levels the country enjoyed before 1991.