At the beginning of the 21st century, Kuwait is facing major challenges. Political reform, including women's right to vote, is under debate and cannot be put off in the long run. Economic reform is even more pressing. Kuwait's oil reserves will last for another 100 years, but the country has to restructure its economy and reduce its dependence on oil. Many young Kuwaitis will demand their share in the country's wealth and need to be provided with work opportunities and prospects if they are not to challenge the country's political power structures. The government is currently debating various reform packages in both the economic and political arenas. And, however much resistance there may currently be to economic reform, privatization and liberalization might prove to be the only way to sustain the country's wealth in a post-oil era.