1917. As the Ottoman Empire collapses, Iraq comes under the control of the British.
1921. The British declare Faisal king of Iraq.
1932. Modern Iraq gains independence. A new government headed by General Nouri al-Said is formed.
1933. Ghazi, the son of King Faisal, becomes king.
1941. The Ba'ath Party is founded by 2 Syrian students, espousing the goals of socialism, freedom, and unity.
1939. King Ghazi is killed in a car accident and is succeeded by his son Faisal II.
1958. Hashemite monarchy is overthrown by officers of the Nineteenth Brigade under the leadership of Brigadier Abdul-Karim Qassem and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif. Iraq is declared a republic.
1963. President Abdul-Karim Qassem is overthrown by Abdul Salam Arif and a coterie of military officers in a bloodless coup.
1970. The government signs a 15-article peace plan with the Kurds after years of rebellion and conflict.
1972. Iraq and the Soviet Union sign a treaty of friendship for political and economic cooperation. Iraqi Petroleum Company is nationalized and Iraq National Oil Company is established to exploit new oil concessions.
1979. President Bakr resigns, and Saddam Hussein officially replaces him as president of the republic, secretary general of the Ba'ath Party Regional Command, chairman of the RCC, and commander in chief of the armed forces.
1979. Shah of Iran is overthrown.
1980. Iran-Iraq War begins.
1988. Iran-Iraq War ends.
1988. Government launches privatization program to spur economy.
1990. Iraq invades Kuwait.
1991. Iraq is defeated by allied forces. United Nations sanctions are imposed.
1997. Iraq is permitted to export limited amounts of oil in return for food and medicine.