1600. King Henry IV of France grants a fur trading monopoly in the Gulf of St. Lawrence to a French company.
1608. Samuel de Champlain founds Quebec, the fist permanent European settlement in Canada.
1644. Wheat is planted and harvested for the first time in Canada.
1670. The Hudson's Bay company is formed by British merchants to trade in the Hudson Bay area.
1731-43. French fur trappers go into the territory beyond Lake Winnipeg and begin to send furs back to the east, establishing a lucrative trade.
1756-63. French and Indian War or Seven Years War results in British control of Canada, including Quebec.
1775-83. American Revolutionary War. British and Canadian forces defeat several American invasion attempts. Thousands of Americans loyal to England emigrate to Canada during the war.
1791. Many British loyalists settle in western Quebec, leading to the division of Quebec into Upper Canada (Ontario) and Lower Canada (Quebec). A year later George Vancouver begins his explorations of the Pacific Coast.
1807. Slavery is abolished in Canada.
1812-14. The War of 1812 is fought between the United States and Great Britain. The Americans burn York (Toronto), the capital of Ontario, but British forces retaliate by burning Washington, D.C.
1821. The 2 major economic forces in Canada, the Hudson's Bay Company and the Northwest Company, merge. This creates widespread unemployment.
1838. Rebellions by Native Americans and French-speaking Canadians break out across the colonies.
1841. The Act of Union unites Upper and Lower Canada into the single colony of Canada.
1857. Ottawa becomes the capital of Canada.
1867. Great Britain's North American colonies are united in a confederation to form the Dominion of Canada and are given semi-independent status, including self-government.
1870s. The northern bison herds are decimated. This leads to the collapse of the west's economy.
1880-84. A transcontinental railway is built, mainly by immigrant Chinese laborers.
1897. Gold is discovered in the Klondike. This leads to a widespread gold rush that attracts thousands, including many Americans.
1917. The income tax is adopted during World War I, but never repealed.
1922. The Canadian Northern and Canadian Transcontinental Railways merge to create Canadian National Railways. Four Canadian scientists share the Nobel Prize for their discovery of insulin.
1923. Anti-immigration sentiment leads the government to virtually halt Chinese immigration.
1931. The Statute of Westminister grants Canada full control over internal and external affairs. The governor-general becomes the representative of the British monarch.
1932. The Ottawa Agreements establish preferential trade between Canada and the other British Commonwealth nations.
1935. The Bank of Canada is established as the nation's central bank.
1937. Trans Canada Air Lines establishes regular flights.
1945. Canada joins the United Nations. The nation's first atomic reactor is built in Ontario.
1959. St. Lawrence Seaway opens.
1962. The Trans-Canada Highway opens. Canada becomes the third nation in space with the launch of a satellite.
1965. Canada and the United States sign the Auto Pact. The Maple Leaf flag is adopted.
1980. In a referendum in Quebec, voters reject independence from Canada.
1982. Canada gains a new constitution. The most severe economic recession since the Great Depression begins.
1984. The Gulf of Maine dispute between Canada and the United States is settled by the International Court of Justice.
1987. The Meech Lake Accords fail to solve the question of the status of Quebec.
1989. U.S.-Canada Free Trade Agreement goes into effect.
1990. The Goods and Services Tax (GST), a 7 percent national sales tax, is enacted. Canada and the United States sign the Fisheries Enforcement Agreement.
1992. Canada is the first nation to sign the bio-diversity treaty following the United Nations Earth Summit in Brazil.
1994. Trade restrictions between the provinces are eased and cigarette taxes are lowered following widespread smuggling from the United States. Canada joins the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA).
1995. Voters in Quebec narrowly reject independence.
1996. Substantial cuts in government spending are announced.
1997. Canada initiates a free trade agreement with Chile.
1999. Canadian forces participate in the NATO-led military operation against Serbia in Kosovo. Canada and the United States sign the Pacific Salmon Agreement.