c. A.D. 300-800. The first humans arrive in Madagascar, from Indonesia.
1642. French presence established.
1890. European powers recognize Madagascar as a French protectorate.
1944. Madagascar receives French overseas territory status.
1958. Madagascar becomes a self-governing republic within the French Community.
1960. Independence from France.
1972. Philibert Tsirinan, Madagascar's first president, is forced to resign after mass demonstrations.
1975. Didier Ratsiraka becomes Madagascar's second president.
1992. New Constitution enacted; Ratsiraka defeated in elections by Albert Zafy.
1996. Zafy impeached by parliament; Ratsiraka returns to office.
1999. Madagascar becomes eligible for U.S. debt relief.