Africa Confidential , February 2, 1996, no. 3, pp. 6–7; March 15, 1996, no. 6, pp. 6–7; May 24, 1996, no. 11, pp. 4–5.
Africa News, courtesy of Panafrican News Agency.
Africa South of the Sahara 2002 . 31st ed. London: Europa Publications Ltd., 2001.
Banks, Arthur, Alan Day, and Thomas Muller, eds. Political Handbook of the World, 1995–96.
Brockman, Norbert C. An African Biographical Dictionary. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1994.
Economist Intelligence Unit (EIU). Zimbabwe. March 16, 2002.
Hayes, S.V. Who's Who of Southern Africa . Johannesburg: Who's Who of Southern Africa, 1996.
Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN) , http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN (May, 2003).
IRIN , http://www.irinnews.org/frontpage.asp?SelectRegion=Southern_Africa&SelectCountry=Zimbabwe (April 30, 2002).
"Mugabe Says Zimbabwean Troops in DRCongo to Defend Kabila Against Invasion." ZBC Radio , Harare, BBC Monitoring International Reports, August 12, 1999.
The New York Times, April 27, 1996.
Rake, Alan. New African Yearbook, 1995–96 . Edison, NJ: Hunter Publishing Inc., 1995.
——. Who's Who in Africa: Leaders for the 1990s . Metuchen, NJ: The Scarecrow Press, 1992.
Profile researched and written by Robert W. Compton, Jr., Department of Political Science, Binghamton University (SUNY) and Keuka College (10/1996); updated by Robert J. Groelsema (5/2003).