"Questions Dog Terrorists' Escape from a Yemeni Jail." Toronto Globe and Mail, http://www.startribune.com/stories/1576/3861502.html (May 9, 2003).
Reich, Bernard, ed. Political Leaders of the Contemporary Middle East and North Africa. New York: Greenwood Press, 1990.
"There Are No Al Qaeda Cells in Yemen, President Saleh Says." ITAR/TASS News Agency, http://www.cpl.org (May 7, 2002).
U.S. Department of State, http://www.state.gov (April 28,2003).
Wax, Emily. "Thousands Protest Across Arab World." Washington Post Online Edition, http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wpdyn?pagename=article&node=&contentId=A7729-2003Mar21¬Found=true (May 9, 2003).
"Yemen's Saleh Cancels Egypt Visit." United Press International, http://www.cpl.org (May 7, 2002).
Profile researched and written by Hootan Shambayati (8/1990); updated by Jeneen Hobby, Ph.D. (5/2003).