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Africaonline. http://www.africaonline.com (May 2000; March 2003).
Africa South of the Sahara 2002. London: Europa Publications Ltd., 2001.
Economist Intelligence Unit, Ltd. EIU Country Reports. January 2002 and November 2002.
"The Gambia." All Africa.com. http://allafrica.com/gambia/ (March 28, 2003).
Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN). http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN (March 28, 2003).
Kandeh, Jimmy D. "What Does the 'Militariat' Do When it Rules?" Review of African Political Economy, September 1996, vol. 23, no. 69.
United Democratic Party (UDP). http://www.udpgambia.org/ (April 17, 2002).
World Bank Development Report: From Plan to Market. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.
Profile researched and updated by Robert J. Groelsema, Ph.D. (4/2003); sections contributed by Mae C. King, Ph.D., Howard University (12/96).