Kenneth Davis Anthony was born on 8 January 1951 in St. Lucia. He began his academic studies at the Vieux Fort Senior Secondary School and then attended the St. Lucia Teachers' College. He obtained first class honors from the University of the West Indies (UWI), where he earned a bachelor's degree in government and history. Following this, he received his Bachelor of Laws Degree and master's degree in law, both from UWI. He then attended the University of Birmingham in the UK, where he obtained a doctorate in law.
His professional career includes faculty positions at both the Castries Anglican Primary School and at his alma mater, the Vieux Fort Secondary School. He became a part-time tutor in the Faculty of Social Sciences at the St. Augustine Campus of the UWI in 1978. In 1981, he began teaching at the UWI Cave Hill Campus, eventually becoming a department head. Anthony was appointed director of the Caribbean Justice Improvement Project in October 1993. He has served as an advisor to the Regional Constituent Assembly of the Windward Islands and as a consultant for the Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and the United Nations Development Program (UNDP). Anthony has three children.