Douglas, Norman and Ngaire Douglas, eds. Pacific Islands Yearbook . 17th ed. Fiji Times Ltd., 1994.
Economist Intelligence Unit Ltd. Country Profile: Samoa . 1998–99.
Islands Business , selected issues, 1997–1999.
Meleisea, Malama. Lagaga: A Short History of Western Samoa . University of the South Pacific, 1997.
Samoa Globe , http://www.samoaglobe.com /(May 13, 2003).
Stanley, David. South Pacific Handbook . 5th ed. Moon Publications, 1993.
Talamua: The Samoa Monthly Magazine , selected issues, 1996–1998.
U.S. Department of State, http://www.state.gov (April 2003).
Profile researched and written by Eugene Ogan, Professor Emeritus, University of Minnesota (6/1999); updated by Jeneen Hobby, Ph.D. (5/2003).