Nambaryn Enkhbayar was born on 1 June 1958 in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia, where he attended primary and secondary school, graduating in 1975. In 1980, he graduated from Moscow's prestigious Institute of Literature and went on to study English Literature at Leeds University in the United Kingdom during 1986.
Enkhbayar worked as a professional translator-editor between 1980–90 and is a self-described Anglophile, fluent in English as well as Russian. Among other accomplishments, he has translated several books into Mongolian, including works by Charles Dickens, Aldous Huxley, and Virginia Woolf.
Prior to holding office as a member of the MPRP, Enkhbayar served as secretary of the Mongolian Writers' Union and vice president of the Mongolian Translator's Union (1980–90). He is married with three children.