Africa News Online, http://www.africanews.org (April 2003).
Africa South of the Sahara 2002. London: Europa Publications Ltd., 2001.
Africaonline, http://www.africaonline.com (April 2002).
BBC News, http://news.bbc.co.uk/ (April 2002)
"Central African Republic: U.N. Envoy Arrives." The New York Times, June 13, 2001, p. A8.
Economist Intelligence Unit, Ltd. EIU Country Reports, March 1, 2002.
IRIN Online, http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN (March 2003).
Les Echos, http://www.malinet.ml/palabre/presse/les_echos/sept98/ec1064actla.html . (March 2003).
Observatoire de la Démocratie en Afrique, http://www.democraf.com/article.php3?id_article=325 (March 2003).
Swarns, Rachel with Norimitsu Onishi. "Africa Creeps along Path to Democracy," New York Times, June 2, 2002, p. A1.
"The World in Brief: Former Junta Chief Wins Presidency." Los Angeles Times, May 16, 2002, p. A4.
Profile researched and written by Robert J. Groelsema, Ph.D. (4/2003); sections contributed by Kathryn L. Green, California State University, San Bernardino (8/1997).