Africa Confidential, 13 December 1996.
Africa News Online, http://www.africanews.org/west/stories/1999_feat1.html (April 2002).
Africa South of the Sahara 2002 . Madagascar. London: Europa Publishers, 2001.
Africaonline, http://www.africaonline.com (May 2, 2003).
Banks, Arthur S., Alan Day, and Thomas Muller. Political Handbook of the World, 1995–96. Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications, 1995.
Economist Intelligence Unit , EIU Country Reports, 20 September 2002.
Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN), http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN (April 2003).
"Profile: Marc Ravalomanana," BBC News, http://www.news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/1866530.stm (May 1, 2003).
Site de Soutien de Marc Ravalomanana, http://www.tiako-imadagasikara.org/Campagne.htm (May 1, 2003).
Profile researched and written by Robert J. Groelsema, Ph.D. (4/2003); sections contributed by R. Charles Sebuharara, Binghamton University (7/1997).