Amnesty International, "Laos: Torture, Ill-Treatment and Hidden Suffering." London, July 2002.
Far Eastern Economic Review , July 27, 2000, and August 30, 2001.
"Political Dissent in Laos." The Irrawaddy , June 2000.
Leifer, Michael. Dictionary of the Modern Politics of South-East Asia. London: Routledge, 1996.
Mydans, Seth. "Communists in Laos Dust Off the Nation's Royal Past." New York Times, January 5, 2003.
Results from the Population Census: 1995. Vientiane: State Planning Committee and National Statistical Centre, April 1997.
Stuart-Fox, Martin. Buddhist Kingdom, Marxist State: The Making of Modern Laos. Bangkok: 1996.
——. A History of Laos. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1997.
Stuart-Fox, Martin and Mary Kooyman. Historical Dictionary of Laos. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1992.
Profile researched and revised by y Edith Mirante 3/02; sections contributed by Gerald Fry, University of Oregon (6/98).