Embassy of the Kyrgyz Government to the USA and Canada, http://www.kyrgyzstan.org (April 23, 2002).
FBIS Daily Report: Central Eurasia, various issues.
Frantz, Douglas. "Kyrgyzstan: Death Penalty Moratorium." New York Times, January 17, 2002, p. A6.
Lewis, David. "Crisis in Kyrgyzstan," The Guardian, http://www.observer.co.uk/worldview/story/0,11581,781376,00.html (March 10, 2003).
Pannier, Bruce. "Kyrgyzstan: Bloody Protests Lead To Release Of Jailed Deputy," Asia Human Rights News, http://www.ahrchk.net/news/mainfile.php/ahrnews_200203/2494/ (March 10, 2003).
RFE/RL Research Report, various issues.
Profile researched and written by Jim Nichol, Library of Congress (5/00); updated by Jeneen Hobby, Ph.D. (4/03).