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"Baghdad Seeks Arab Support as US Debates Next Move." Middle East Economic Digest , January 11, 2002, p. 3.
Current History, January 1996, pp. 10–15.
Gordan, Michael. "U.S. Acts to Limit Influence of Iran in Iraq's Politics," New York Times, May 1, 2003, p. A14.
Hiro, Dilip. Dictionary of the Middle East. New York: St. Martin's Press, 1996.
"Is It Time to Topple Saddam?" Insight on the News , March 11, 2002, p. 22.
Johnston, David and James Risen, "New Tape of Hussein Prolongs Debate on His Fate," New York Times, April 19, 2003, p. B1.
Journal of South Asian and Middle Eastern Studies, Spring 1996, pp. 1–20.
Karsh, Efraim and Inari Rautsi. Hussein: A Political Biography. New York: The Free Press, 1991.
Khan, Adnan R. "The Edge of Anarchy: To Slow Iraq's Drift into Total Chaos, the U.S. Changes Its Administration in the Country," Maclean's, May 26, 2003, p. 20.
"Ousting Saddam: Can it Be Done?" Time , February 25, 2002, p. 18
Perlez, Jane. "Iraqis Set to Meet to Pick Transitional Government," New York Times, April 29, 2003, p. A1.
"UN Arms Inspector Says Iraq Still Not Cooperating," CNN Online, http://www.cnn.com/ (June 2000).
Whitelaw, Kevin. "The New-Style Iraqi Politics." U.S. News & World Report, June 2, 2003, p. 30.
"Why Bombs Are Falling in Iraq." The Economist, March 6, 1999.
The World of Information Middle East Review 1997. Saffron Walden, England: Walden Publishing Ltd., 1997.
Profile researched and written by Ahmad Sheikhzadeh, Columbia University (6/97); updated by Jeneen Hobby, Ph.D. (5/2003).