Africa South of the Sahara 2002. "Cape Verde." 31st ed. Old Working Surrey: The Gresham Press, 2002.
BBC News. "Country Profile: Cape Verde." 12 March 2000.
Cape Verde Home Page, http://www.umassd.edu/SpecialPrograms/caboverde (June 2000; April 2002).
Davidson, Basil. The Fortunate Isles, A Study in African Transformation. London: Hutchinson; Trenton, NJ: World Press, 1989.
——. No Fist is Big Enough to Hide the Sky. 2nd ed. London: Zed Press, 1984.
International Who's Who 2002. 65 th Edition. London: Europa Publications, 2002.
Lobban, Richard A. Cape Verde: Crioulo Colony to Independent Nation. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995.
——. Historical Dictionary of Cape Verde. 3rd ed. Metuchen, NJ: Scarecrow Press, 1995.
Pedro Pires, http://www.pedropires.org/ (April 7, 2002).
"Where History Stopped By." New York Times, March 7, 1999.
Profile researched and written by Robert J. Groelsema (4/2002; updated 2/2003); sections contributed by Kathryn L. Green, California State University, San Bernardino (6/1997).