Arnold, Wayne. "The Sultan of Brunei Switches Gears: He Tries to Push Change and Pull Country into Global Economy." International Herald Tribune, March 7, 2001,p. 17.
Chandrasekaran, Rajiv. "The Party's Over in Brunei." Washington Post, May 14, 2000, p. A-22
Government of Brunei , http://www.brunei.gov.bn (January 22, 2003).
Leake Jr., David. Brunei: The Modern Southeast Asian Islamic Sultanate, 1989.
"Philippines, Brunei Sign Defense Cooperation Accord." August 22, 2001, http://www.in17.net/brk/2001/aug/22/brkpd_16-1.htm (April 22, 2002).
Schelander, Bjorn. Brunei: Abode of Peace. Honolulu: Center for Southeast Asian Studies, School of Hawaiian, Asian and Pacific Studies, University of Hawaii, 1998.
Profile researched and written by Junling Ma (7/90); updated (4/2002, 2/2003).