Africa News Online. http://www.africanews.org/west/stories/1999_feat1.html (May 15, 2000).
Africaonline. http://www.africaonline.com (May 15, 2000).
Banks, Arthur, Alan Day, and Thomas Muller, eds. Political Handbook of the World, 1995–96 . Binghamton, NY: CSA Publications, 1995.
"Benin: General Chameleon." Africa Confidential , April 26, 1996.
Brockman, Norbert C. An African Biographical Dictionary . Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 1994.
Decalo, Samuel. Historical Dictionary of Benin . 3rd ed. Lanham, MD: Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1995.
Economist Intelligence Unit, Ltd. EIU Country Reports, January 26, 2000.
Farah, Douglas. "Opposition Evaporates in Benin Vote" Washington Post , March 24, 2001, p. A14.
Houngnikpo, Mathurin C. Determinants of Democratization in Africa: A Comparative Study of Benin and Togo. Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 2001.
Integrated Regional Information Network (IRIN), http://www.reliefweb.int/IRIN (May 15, 2000).
Michaud, Paul. "The 'Chameleon's' Triumphal Return." Afican Business, April 2002, p. 41+.
Profile researched and written by Robert W. Compton, Jr. (7/96); updated by Robert J. Groelsema (5/00, 3/02, and 2/03).