International Peace and Security - Types of action taken by the un



The UN has two main responsibilities with respect to the political disputes that are brought before it by states: helping the parties concerned to arrive at a peaceful settlement of the issue that caused the dispute, and maintaining the peace if animosities threaten to erupt into violence or restoring the peace if hostilities have already broken out.

An Agenda for Peace

In response to the profoundly altered global political situation, on 31 January 1992, the Security Council met in a historic summit session attended by 13 heads of state and two foreign ministers. At that session, the Security Council requested Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali to prepare an analysis and recommendations on ways to strengthen UN peacekeeping efforts. In June 1992 the Secretary-General submitted An Agenda for Peace. This important document challenged member states to adapt their world organization to the new international situation with more effective and rational peacekeeping procedures. The document began by defining four types of peace-related activities:

Preventive Diplomacy. Defined as action to prevent disputes from arising and to prevent existing disputes from escalating into conflicts. The Secretary-General listed a number of different actions that constituted preventive diplomacy: confidence building (exchange of military missions, opening channels for the exchange of information, and providing monitoring for regional arms reduction agreements), fact-finding missions, early warning from regional organizations with observer status at the United Nations, preventive deployment of a UN force before hostilities occur, and the establishment of demilitarized zones.

Peacemaking . Action to bring hostile parties to agreement through peaceful means like those outlined in Chapter VI of the UN Charter, namely: negotiation, enquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or appealing to regional organizations.

The Secretary-General suggested that the International Court of Justice remained an underused resource for peaceful settlement of international disputes. He recommended that member states that had not accepted the general jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice, do so before the end of the UN Decade of International Law in the year 2000. Another tool for peacemaking was the imposition of economic sanctions under Article 41 of the charter. The main difficulty with this tool was compensating member states that would find their own economies crippled by the imposition of sanctions on an offending state.

Peacekeeping . Defined as the deployment of a UN force to the field, usually with the consent of the parties to the conflict. Peace-keeping could involve military, police, and civilian personnel. The UN pioneered this new form of military deployment during the early conflicts in the Middle East and the Congo. Peacekeeping troops serve at the request of all the parties to a conflict, for example, to monitor implementation of a cease-fire, or to prevent shipments of weapons across borders. They may also serve to monitor a demilitarized zone and provide a buffer between combatants. Peacekeeping forces, however, are only lightly armed and authorized to use force only in self-defense. By its very nature, peacekeeping implies an even-handed treatment of all the parties in a conflict.

Peace Enforcement . Although not officially defined as a separate concept in An Agenda for Peace, the Secretary-General did propose the creation, under Article 43 of the charter, of forces which could respond quickly and forcefully to imminent or out-right aggression. In fact, the UN had sometimes been called upon to send forces to restore a cease-fire. In the Secretary-General's proposal, these troops would be maintained and specially trained by the armed forces of member states. When called upon, they would be more heavily armed than peacekeeping forces and authorized to use deadly force to stop combatants. The Secretary-General proposed that these special units would be on call for quick response to the early stages of an international crisis. In the post–cold war era, peace enforcement had already found expression in the Security Council's authorization of a multinational force (sanctioned by the UN but not, however, under UN administration) led by the United States to suppress Iraq's 1991 invasion of Kuwait.

However, the concept of peace enforcement remains controversial, as some experts and member countries maintain that there is no basis in the UN charter for an organization dedicated to international peace to settle disputes with military force. Under the charter, member states are meant to settle their disputes by peaceful means.

On the other hand, Article 43 of the charter provides for member states to make military forces available to the Security Council. In fact, it was originally envisioned that the United States alone would provide twenty divisions (over 300,000 troops), a very large naval force, 1,250 bombers, and 2,250 fighters. These provisions were never implemented due to lack of consensus.

In 1993, former Undersecretary-General Brian Urquhart, who participated in the management of 15 peacekeeping operations during his 40-year tenure at the United Nations, proposed the creation of an elite UN-trained military force made up of international volunteers, not soldiers seconded from national forces. Urquhart suggested that such a volunteer force would give the Security Council the ability to back up preventive diplomacy with immediate peace enforcement. "Clearly, a timely intervention by a relatively small but highly trained force, willing and authorized to take combat risks and representing the will of the international community, could make a decisive difference in the early stages of a crisis," said Urquhart in the journal "Foreign Policy." Urquhart suggested that such a force might have been used effectively, for example, during the attempted deployment of the UN Mission in Haiti (UNMIH). When the United States naval ship carrying the first deployment of troops arrived at Port au Prince in October 1993, the ship was prevented from landing by a disorganized and violent demonstration of armed civilians at the port. By August 1994, the escalating crisis in Haiti had led the Security Council to authorize a multinational force, similar to that used in the Iraq-Kuwait crisis, to restore the democratically elected government of Haiti. The escalation might have been prevented if UNMIH had been enabled to carry out its mandate.

Peace Building . Defined as "action to identify and support structures which will tend to strengthen and solidify peace in order to avoid a relapse into conflict."

The UN had already begun to develop the concept of "peace building" as early as 1990, when the UN Observer Group in Central America supervised Nicaraguan elections which were certified to be "free and fair" by the UN Observer Mission to Verify the Electoral Process in Nicaragua (ONUVEN).

Since then the demand for UN electoral assistance has grown enormously. Before 1992, the UN supervised elections in Haiti, Namibia, and Nicaragua. However, between January 1992 and June 1994, the United Nations received 56 requests for electoral assistance. The organization's Electoral Assistance Unit was established in 1992 and operates within the Department of Peace-keeping Operations. Following is a list of member states requesting and receiving assistance from 1989 to 1999: Albania, Algeria, Angola, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, Belarus, Benin, Brazil, Burundi, Burkina Faso, Cambodia, Cameroon, Cape Verde, Central African Republic, Chad, Colombia, Comoros, Congo, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Côte D'Ivoire, Croatia, Djibouti, Dominican Republic, East Timor, El Salvador, Equatorial Guinea, Eritrea, Estonia, Ethiopia, Fiji, Gabon, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Hungary, Indonesia, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Latvia, Lesotho, Liberia, Macedonia, Madagascar, Malawi, Mali, Mexico, Moldova, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands Antilles, Nicaragua, Niger, Nigeria, Pakistan, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Philippines, Romania, Russia, Rwanda, São Tomé and Príncipe, Senegal, Seychelles, Sierra Leone, South Africa, Sudan, Swaziland, Tanzania, Togo, Uganda, Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Western Sahara, Yemen, and Zambia. The Electoral Assistance Unit is supported by the UN Trust Fund for Electoral Observation, which is a voluntary fund. Besides building peace by strengthening a country's democratic infrastructure, the Secretary-General also included the following activities under the concept of peace building: clearing land-mines so that agriculture and transportation may be resumed safely; disarming the warring parties; taking custody of and destroying weapons; repatriating refugees; training security personnel; educational and cultural exchanges; and joint projects to develop agriculture, improve transportation, or utilize shared natural resources.

The Cost of Waging Peace

In Renewing the United Nations System (Dag Hammarskjöld Foundation, 1994), co-authors Brian Urquhart and Erskine Childers (former senior adviser to the UN Director General for Development and International Cooperation) cite the following figures: "By early 1993 the UN was deploying four times the number of troops, 70 times more police and over 100 times the number of civilian personnel as in 1987, at nearly 10 times the annual cost. As of 30 April 1994 the UN had contributions from 66 countries of 65,838 troops, 2,400 military observers, and 1,307 civilian and police personnel, with possible further deployments (and costs) evolving almost weekly relative to situations like those in Haiti, Rwanda and the former Yugoslavia. The projected costs of peace-keeping rose from some US $600 million in 1991 to an estimated US $2.3 billion for 1993."

In fact, in May 1994, the Secretary-General was unable to obtain 5,500 troops from African nations to protect refugees and international aid workers caught in the bloody Rwandan civil war. He attributed this to donor fatigue among the countries that frequently assign troops to UN operations.

As the world has increasingly turned to the UN to deal with conflicts, the cost of peacekeeping has risen accordingly. The annual cost of all peacekeeping operations in 2002 amounted to about US$ 2.6 billion. However, global military expenditures in the 1990s amounted to around US$ 1 trillion per year. Of course, these monetary figures do not adequately take into account the tragic price paid in human death and suffering during war.

Most UN peacekeeping operations are not financed from the organization's regular budget, but from special accounts established by the organization to fund each particular operation. Each member is then assessed for a share of the mission's estimated cost. Special assessments for peacekeeping are divided into three categories. The five permanent members of the Security Council pay about 22 percent more than the regular scale of assessments because of their greater influence over Security Council decisions (by virtue of holding the power of veto). Other developed industrial states pay the same share for peacekeeping as they pay for the regular budget. Wealthier developing countries pay one-fifth of their regular budget share for peacekeeping. The poorest nations (least developed countries, or LDCs) pay one-tenth of their regular share. There are certain inequities to this arrangement. For example, 15 "developing" states with per capita GNPs of $5,000 or more still are assessed only one-fifth of their regular budget assessment for peacekeeping (United Arab Emirates, Kuwait, Qatar, Brunei, Singapore, Bahamas, Israel, Cyprus, Barbados, Bahrain, Saudi Arabia, Malta, Greece, Libya, and Oman).

A recurrent and critical problem for UN peacekeeping has been the consistent shortfall in the payment of members' assessed contributions. As of October 2000, member states owed the UN a total of US$ 2.1 billion in current and back peacekeeping dues.

Since 1945, 123 nations have contributed personnel at various times; 89 were providing peacekeepers in October 2000. In 2000, the top contributors of personnel to ongoing peacekeeping missions were India, Nigeria, Jordan, Bangladesh, and Ghana. The small island nation of Fiji has taken part in virtually every UN peacekeeping operation, as has Canada.

For the above reasons, the Secretary-General suggested in his Agenda for Peace that contributions to UN peacekeeping operations be financed from defense budgets, rather than from foreign affairs budgets. Other innovative proposals in the agenda included obtaining standing commitments from member states as to the numbers and kinds of skilled personnel they can offer the United Nations as new operations arise; new arrangements for training peacekeeping personnel, including indispensable civilian and police staff; stockpiling basic peacekeeping equipment (vehicles, communications equipment, generators, etc.); and air and sea lift capacity to be provided by member states either free of cost or at lower than commercial rates.

Genesis of a Peacekeeping Mission

Many missions are planned in response to a crisis, so the steps in mounting them happen more or less simultaneously. When more time is available, the following sequence of events is usually adhered to:

  • • Mediation. The Secretary-General may be instructed to dispatch field survey missions, or may choose to send his own special representative to help achieve a political settlement.
  • • Initial Design. The mission concept is presented to the Security Council for its preliminary approval.
  • • Security Council Directive. The Security Council directs the Secretary-General to report back within a specified amount of time with a plan for the mission that includes its size, structure, duties, and timeline.
  • • Mission Design. Units of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations put together a plan for the mission.
  • • Security Council approval obtained.
  • • Creation and verification of the mission budget.
  • • Submission of the budget to the Fifth Committee (Financial).
  • • Fifth Committee submits the budget to the General Assembly for approval.
  • • Assessment letters are sent to the member states.

Until approved by the General Assembly, the Secretary-General cannot make contractual commitments for equipment, transport, or other services in excess of a US $10 million annual spending authority for special circumstances. The length of the approval process creates a devastating time lag when an international crisis develops that requires a timely response.

Chronology of Peacekeeping Operations

Between 1945 and 2002, there were 55 UN peacekeeping or observer missions. The following is a list of the UN peacekeeping operations, arranged in chronological order. Unless otherwise noted, figures are accurate as of September 2002.

UNTSO-United Nations Truce Supervision Organization

Duration: June 1948 to present.

Headquarters: Government House, Jerusalem.

Strength: 154 military observers.

Fatalities: 38.

Mandate: Initially to supervise the original truce of 1948; in 1949, following the conclusion of armistice agreements between Israel and its Arab neighbors (Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria), its responsibility became to assist the parties in supervising the application and observance of those agreements. However, over the years, its activities and responsibilities have expanded to cover a number of UN-supervised emergency situations in Israel, Syria, and Lebanon.

Composition: UNTSO's military observers come from 23 contributing countries: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Slovenia, Sweden, Switzerland, and United States.

Annual cost: approximately US $23 million.

UNMOGIP-United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan

Duration: January 1949 to present.

Location: The cease-fire line between India and Pakistan in the state of Jammu and Kashmir.

Strength: 44 military observers.

Fatalities: 9.

Mandate: To observe developments pertaining to the strict observance of the cease-fire of 17 December 1971 and report to the Secretary-General.

Composition: UNMOGIP's military observers come from nine countries: Belgium, Chile, Croatia, Denmark, Finland, Italy, Republic of Korea, Sweden, and Uruguay.

Annual cost: approximately US $6.2 million.

UNEF I-First United Nations Emergency Force

Duration: November 1956 to June 1967.

Location: Initially the Suez Canal sector and the Sinai peninsula; later, along the Armistice Demarcation Line in the Gaza area and the Egyptian side of the international frontier in the Sinai peninsula.

Strength: At peak: 6,073; at end: 3,400.

Fatalities: 107.

Mandate: To secure and to supervise the cessation of hostilities, including the withdrawal of the armed forces of France, Israel, and the United Kingdom from Egyptian territory, and to serve as a buffer between the Egyptian and Israeli forces.

Composition: Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Denmark, Finland, India, Indonesia, Norway, Sweden, and Yugoslavia.

Total cost: approximately US $214 million.

UNOGIL-United Nations Observation Group in Lebanon

Duration: June 1958 to December 1958.

Location: Beirut, Lebanon.

Strength: 591 military observers (maximum).

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To ensure that there was no illegal infiltration of personnel or supply of arms across the Lebanese border.

Composition: Forces from 21 countries.

Total cost: approximately US $3.7 million.

UNOC-United Nations Operation in the Congo

Duration: July 1960 to June 1964.

Location: Leopoldville (now Kinshasa), Republic of Congo (now Zaire).

Strength: Peak: 19,828.

Fatalities: 250.

Mandate: Initially, to ensure withdrawal of Belgian forces and assist the government in maintaining law and order; later, to maintain territorial integrity and independence of the Congo and to prevent the occurrence of civil war.

Composition: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Denmark, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Liberia, Malaysia, Mali, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Sudan, Sweden, Tunisia, Yugoslavia.

Total cost: approximately US $400 million.

UNSF-United Nations Security Force in West New Guinea (West Irian)

Duration: October 1962 to April 1963.

Location: Hollandia, West Irian (now Jayaphra, Indonesia).

Strength: 1,576.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To maintain peace and security in the territory under the UN Temporary Executive Authority established by agreement between Indonesia and the Netherlands while the administration of the territory was transferred to Indonesia.

Composition: Canada, Pakistan, United States.

Total cost: approximately US $26.4 million (cost borne by Netherlands and Indonesia).

UNYOM-United Nations Yemen Observations Mission

Duration: July 1963 to September 1964.

Location: Sana'a, Yemen.

Strength: 25 military observers; 114 members of a reconnaissance unit; 50 members of an air unit.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To observe and certify the implementation of the disengagement agreement between Saudi Arabia and the United Arab Republic (now Egypt and Syria).

Composition: Canada, Yugoslavia.

Total cost: approximately US $1.8 million (cost borne by Saudi Arabia and Egypt).

UNFICYP-United Nations Peacekeeping Force in Cyprus

Duration: March 1964 to present.

Location: Cyprus.

Strength: 1,245 troops and civilian police, and 147 international civilian personnel and local civilian staff.

Fatalities: 170.

Mandate: To prevent a recurrence of fighting between Turkish-backed Cypriots and Greek-backed Cypriots; to contribute to the maintenance and restoration of law and order.

Composition: The operational elements of UNFICYP are provided by Argentina, Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Republic of Korea, Slovakia, and the United Kingdom. The Argentinian contingent included soldiers from Bolivia (2), Brazil (2), Chile (1), Paraguay (1) Peru (2) and Uruguay (3).

Annual cost: approximately US $45.6 million.

DOMREP-Mission of the Representative of the Secretary-General in the Dominican Republic

Duration: May 1965 to October 1966.

Location: Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic.

Strength: Two military observers.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To observe the situation and to report on breaches of the cease-fire between the two de facto authorities.

Composition: None.

Total cost: US $275,831 (through UN regular budget).

UNIPOM-United Nations India-Pakistan Observation Mission

Duration: September 1965 to March 1966.

Location: Lahore, Pakistan, and Amritsar, India (deployed along the India/Pakistan border between Kashmir and the Arabian Sea).

Strength: 96 military observers (maximum).

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To supervise the cease-fire along the India/Pakistan border (except the State of Jammu and Kashmir where UNMOGIP operates) and the withdrawal of all armed personnel to the positions held before 5 August 1965.

Composition: Australia, Belgium, Brazil, Burma, Canada, Chile, Denmark, Ethiopia, Finland, Ireland, Italy, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Sweden, Sri Lanka, Venezuela.

Total cost: US $1,713,280.

UNEF II-Second United Nations Emergency Force

Duration: October 1973 to July 1979.

Location: Suez Canal sector and later the Sinai peninsula.

Strength: Peak: 6,973; end: 4,000.

Fatalities: 55.

Mandate: To supervise the cease-fire between Egyptian and Israeli forces; later, to supervise the redeployment of those forces and act as a buffer between them.

Composition: Australia, Austria, Canada, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Nepal, Panama, Peru, Poland, Senegal, Sweden.

Total cost: approximately US $446.5 million.

UNDOF-United Nations Disengagement Observer Force

Duration: June 1974 to present.

Location: Syrian Golan Heights.

Strength: 1,029 troops, assisted by approximately 80 military observers.

Fatalities: 40.

Mandate: To maintain the cease-fire between Israel and Syria; supervise the disengagement of Israeli and Syrian forces; super-vise the areas of separation and limitation.

Composition: Originally composed of Austrian and Peruvian infantry units and Canadian and Polish logistic elements. Currently composed of contingents from Austria, Canada, Japan, Poland, Slovakia, and Sweden.

Annual cost: approximately US $40.8 million.

UNIFIL-United Nations Interim Force in Lebanon

Duration: March 1978 to present.

Location: Southern Lebanon.

Strength: 3,310 troops and approximately 50 military observers; 442 local and international civilian staff.

Fatalities: 245.

Mandate: To confirm the withdrawal of Israeli forces from southern Lebanon; restore international peace and security; assist the government of Lebanon in ensuring the return of its effective authority in the area.

Composition: Troops provided by Fiji, France, Ghana, India, Ireland, Italy, Poland, and Ukraine.

Annual cost: approximately US $117.1 million.

UNGOMAP-United Nations Good Offices Mission in Afghanistan and Pakistan

Duration: April 1988 to March 1990.

Location: Kabul, Afghanistan, and Islamabad, Pakistan. Strength: 50 military observers.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To assist in monitoring the implementation of the 1988 peace settlement between Afghanistan and Pakistan.

Composition: Austria, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Fiji, Ghana, Ireland, Nepal, Poland, and Sweden.

Total cost: approximately US$ 14 million.

UNIIMOG-United Nations Iran-Iraq Military Observer Group

Duration: August 1988 to February 1991.

Location: The 740-mile border between Iran and Iraq (headquarters in both Baghdad, Iraq, and Teheran, Iran).

Strength: 400 military personnel; 93 local staff. Fatalities: 1.

Mandate: To verify, confirm, and supervise the cease-fire and withdrawal of troops.

Composition: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Poland, Senegal, Sweden, Turkey, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zambia.

Total cost: approximately US $178 million.

UNAVEM I-United Nations Angola Verification Mission I

Duration: January 1989 to June 1991.

Location: Luanda, Angola.

Strength: Peak: 70 military observers; 22 international staff; 15 local staff.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To monitor the withdrawal of Cuban troops from Angola.

Composition: Algeria, Argentina, Brazil, Congo, Czechoslovakia, India, Jordan, Norway, Spain, Yugoslavia.

Total cost: approximately US $16.4 million.

UNTAG-United Nations Transition Assistance Group

Duration: April 1989 to March 1990.

Location: Windhoek, Namibia.

Maximum strength: Approximately 4,500 military personnel; 1,500 police; 2,000 civilian personnel; 1,000 election observers.

Fatalities: 19.

Mandate: To monitor and supervise the Namibia independence plan, including supervision of elections to a Constituent Assembly.

Composition: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Canada, Denmark, Finland, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Peru, Poland, Senegal, Sweden, Turkey, Uruguay, Yugoslavia, Zambia.

Total cost: approximately US $368.5 million.

ONUCA-United Nations Observer Group in Central America

Duration: November 1989 to January 1992.

Location: Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua (headquarters in Tegucigalpa).

Strength: Peak: 1,195; end: 338.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: Initially, to verify the compliance of the five Central American countries with their security undertakings (the Esquipulas II Agreement, 1987) to cease aid to insurrectionist movements in the region and not to allow their territory to be used for attacks on other states; later, to monitor the demobilization of the Nicaraguan resistance (the "Contras").

Composition: Argentina, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, Venezuela.

Total cost: approximately US $89 million.

UNIKOM-United Nations Iraq-Kuwait Observation Mission

Duration: April 1991 to present.

Location: The demilitarized zone along the boundary between Iraq and Kuwait.

Strength: 194 military observers and 905 support personnel, and 227 international and local civilian staff. Due to repeated Iraqi incursions, in 1993 UNIKOM's mandate was expanded to include taking action against such incursions.

Fatalities: 17.

Mandate: To monitor the Khawr 'Abd Allah waterway between Iraq and Kuwait and the demilitarized zone; deter violations of the boundary; observe any hostile action; and, as expanded by Security Council resolution 806 (1993), to resist attempts to prevent it by force from discharging its duties.

Composition: Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, China, Denmark, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, and Venezuela.

Annual cost: approximately US $54 million.

UNAVEM II-United Nations Angola Verification Mission II

Duration: June 1991 to February 1995.

Location: Angola.

Strength: 350 military observers, 126 police observers, 400 electoral observers, 80 international civilian staff and 155 local staff.

Fatalities: 3.

Mandate: Initially, monitor the cease-fire between the Angolan Government and UNITA, until general elections were held in 1992; observe the elections scheduled for September 1992. When fighting broke out again after the elections, UNAVEM II's mandate was expanded to include monitoring the new cease-fire between the government and UNITA. However, the political situation continued to deteriorate, until in 1993 UNAVEM II had to evacuate 45 of its 67 monitoring locations. Its mandate was extended three months at a time, as it had become an essential factor in a continuous UN effort to facilitate the resumption of negotiations and support humanitarian activities in the country. Following the signing of 20 November 1994 by the Government of Angola and UNITA of the Lusaka Protocol, UNAVEM II verified the initial stages of the peace agreement.

Composition: Military and police personnel are contributed by Argentina, Brazil, Congo, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Ireland, Jordan, Malaysia, Morocco, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, and Zimbabwe.

Total cost: US $175.8 million.

ONUSAL-United Nations Observer Mission in El Salvador

Duration: July 1991 to April 1995.

Location: El Salvador.

Strength: Approximately 380 military observers, 8 medical officers, 631 police observers; there was also a provision for some 140 civilian international staff and 180 local staff.

Fatalities: 5.

Mandate: Initially, to verify compliance with the San José Agreement on Human Rights by the government of El Salvador and the Frente Farabundo Marti para la Liberación Nacional (FMLN); monitor the human rights situation in El Salvador; investigate specific cases of alleged human rights violations; promote human rights in the country; make recommendations for the elimination of violations; and report on these matters to the Secretary-General. Subsequent to final peace agreements which were signed in 1992, ONUSAL's mandate was expanded to include verification of the cease-fire and separation of forces; and monitoring the maintenance of public order while a new National Civil Police force was set up. Finally, ONUSAL's mandate was expanded to observe national elections for the presidency, the legislative assembly, mayors, and municipal councils in March 1994.

Composition: ONUSAL military observers are provided by Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Ecuador, India, Ireland, Spain, Sweden, and Venezuela. Police observers come from Austria, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, France, Guyana, Italy, Mexico, Spain, and Sweden.

Total cost: approximately US $107 million.

MINURSO-United Nations Mission for the Referendum in Western Sahara

Duration: April 1991 to present.

Location: Western Sahara. Strength: 193 military observers, 24 military support personnel, 25 civilian police officers, supported by 291 international and local staff.

Fatalities: 10.

Mandate: To verify a cease-fire between the government of Morocco and the Frente Popular para la Liberación de Saguia el-Hamra y de Rio de Oro (Frente Polisario); monitor the confinement of Moroccan and Frente Polisario troops to designated locations; ensure release of all political prisoners or detainees; oversee exchange of prisoners of war; implement a repatriation program; identify and register qualified voters; organize and ensure a free referendum to enable the people of Western Sahara to exercise their right to self-determination, to choose between independence and integration with Morocco. In 2002, MINURSO's mandate was extended to 31 January 2003.

Composition: Military observers and support personnel are provided by Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, China, Egypt, El Salvador, France, Ghana, Greece, Guinea, Honduras, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Kenya, Malaysia, Nigeria, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Russian Federation, United States, and Uruguay.

Annual cost: approximately US $43.4 million.

UNAMIC-United Nations Advance Mission in Cambodia

Duration: October 1991 to March 1992.

Location: Cambodia.

Strength: 1,504 military and civilian personnel.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To immediately deploy a small advance mission to assist the Cambodian parties to maintain a cease-fire while preparations were made for the larger UNTAC force. UNAMIC consisted of civilian and military liaison staff, a military mine-awareness unit, and logistics and support personnel. Its mandate was expanded in January 1992 to include training Cambodians in mine-clearing.

Composition: Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, China, France, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Malaysia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Senegal, Thailand, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, And Uruguay.

Total cost: See UNTAC, below.

UNPROFOR-United Nations Protection Force

Duration: March 1992 to December 1995.

Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro), and the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Strength: 38,599 military personnel, 684 UN military observers, 803 civilian police, 2,017 international civilian staff, and 2,615 local staff.

Fatalities: 167.

Mandate: In the wake of the end of the cold war, fighting broke out among ethnic and religious factions in the former Yugoslavia. In January 1992, Secretary-General Boutros Boutros-Ghali sent 50 military liaison officers to Yugoslavia to promote maintenance of cease-fire by facilitating communication. In February, although some political groups in Yugoslavia were still expressing objections to a UN plan for a peace-keeping operation, the Security Council established UNPROFOR for an initial period of 12 months to create the conditions of peace and security required for the negotiation of an overall settlement of the Yugoslav crisis. UNPROFOR's operational mandate extends to five republics of the former Yugoslavia, as indicated above. In the rapidly deteriorating situation, its mandate has been enlarged in all five republics to include such things as security at Sarajevo airport; protection of humanitarian convoys; monitoring of a "nofly zone" banning all military flights in the airspace of Bosnia and Herzegovina; border control; the creation of "safe areas" to protect civilians from armed attack. UNPROFOR monitored the implementation of a cease-fire agreement signed by the Bosnian government and Bosnian Croat forces in February 1994. UNPROFOR also monitored the arrangements for a cease-fire negotiated between the Bosnian government and Bosnian Serb forces which became effective on 1 January 1995.

Composition: Military and/or civilian police personnel are provided by Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Colombia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, France, Ghana, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Luxembourg, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, and Venezuela.

Total cost: Approximately US $4.6 billion.

UNTAC-United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia

Duration: March 1992 to September 1993.

Location: Cambodia.

Strength: (Peak) 22,000 military and civilian personnel.

Fatalities: 78.

Mandate: To monitor and help implement the Paris Agreements signed in 1991 between the various political entities in Cambodia. The mandate included aspects relating to human rights, the organization and conduct of free and fair general elections, military arrangements, civil administration, the maintenance of law and order, the repatriation and resettlement of the Cambodian refugees, and rehabilitation of essential Cambodian infrastructure. During its mission the Security Council requested UNTAC to play many roles, including human rights oversight and investigation of allegations of human rights abuses during the transitional period; implementing a legal framework for the electoral process; stabilizing the security situation; and ensuring a neutral political environment conducive to free and fair elections. After elections were held in May 1993 and a newly elected Constituent Assembly began work on 14 June 1993, a withdrawal schedule for UNPROFOR was established, leaving a smaller contingent of military police officers and medical units to continue the work of mine clearance and training.

Composition: UNTAC military and/or civilian police personnel were provided by Algeria, Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brunei Darussalam, Bulgaria, Cameroon, Canada, Chile, China, Colombia, Egypt, Fiji, France, Germany, Ghana, Hungary, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Morocco, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Poland, Russian Federation, Senegal, Singapore, Sweden, Thailand, Tunisia, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay.

Total cost: The total cost of both UNAMIC and UNTAC for the period was approximately US $1,621 million.

ONUMOZ-United Nations Operation in Mozambique

Duration: December 1992 to December 1994.

Location: Mozambique.

Strength: 6,625 troops and military personnel, 354 military observers and 1,144 civilian police; there were also some 355 international staff and 506 local staff; in addition, during the polling, ONUMOZ sent out about 900 electoral observers.

Fatalities: 24.

Mandate: To help implement the General Peace Agreement signed in 1992 in Rome, after 14 years of devastating civil war between the Republic of Mozambique and the Resisténcia Nacional Moçambicana (RENAMO). ONUMOZ's mandate included four important elements: political, military, electoral, and humanitarian. ONUMOZ military wing would monitor and verify the cease-fire, the separation of forces of the two parties, their demo-bilization and the collection, storage, and destruction of weapons. It would authorize security arrangements for vital infrastructures and provide security for United Nations and other international activities. ONUMOZ's Electoral Division would monitor and verify all aspects and stages of the electoral process. ONUMOZ's humanitarian component would function as an integrated component of ONUMOZ to make available food and other relief for distribution to soldiers in the assembly area. After successful presidential and legislative elections in October 1994, and the installation of Mozambique's new Parliament and President, ONUMOZ's mandate ended on 9 December 1994.

Composition: The military component includes 302 military observers and some 6,250 infantry and support personnel from Argentina, Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, China, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Italy, Japan, Malaysia, Netherlands, Portugal, Russian Federation, Spain, Sweden, Uruguay, and Zambia.

Total cost: Approximately US $471 million.

UNOSOM I-United Nations Operation in Somalia I

Duration: April 1992 to March 1993.

Location: Somalia.

Strength: Originally 50 military observers; expanded to include 3,500 security personnel, and further expanded to include 719 personnel in logistical units; there were also some 200 international staff.

Fatalities: 8.

Mandate: To monitor a cease-fire in the capital, Mogadishu; provide protection for UN personnel, equipment, and supplies at the seaports and airports; escort deliveries of humanitarian supplies from there to distribution centers in the city and its immediate environs.

Composition: Observers were sent from Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Czechoslovakia, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Indonesia, Jordan, Morocco, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, and Zimbabwe.

Total cost: Approximately US $42.9 million.

UNOSOM II-United Nations Operation in Somalia II

Duration: March 1993 to March 1995.

Location: Somalia.

Strength: 28,000 military personnel and 2,800 civilian staff.

Fatalities: 147.

Mandate: To establish a secure environment throughout the whole of Somalia; provide assistance to the Somali people in rebuilding their economy and social and political life; help reestablish the country's institutional structure; monitor that all factions continued to respect the various agreements; prevent resumption of violence and, if necessary, take appropriate action against any faction that violated the cessation of hostilities; maintain control of heavy weapons; seize small arms of all unauthorized elements; secure and maintain security at all ports, airports, and lines of communications; protect personnel, installations, and equipment belonging to the UN and other international organizations; take forceful action to neutralize armed elements that attacked or threatened to attack such facilities; assist in repatriation of refugees; continue the program of mine clearance begun under UNISOM I. UNISOM II also sought to assist the Somali people in rebuilding their economy and society, based on a democratic government. In February 1994, after several violent incidents and attacks on UN soldiers, the Security Council revised the mandate to exclude use of coercive methods. UNISOM II was withdrawn in March 1995.

Composition: Military personnel are provided by Australia, Bangladesh, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Kuwait, Malaysia, Morocco, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Republic of Korea, Romania, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United States, and Zimbabwe.

Note: The United States forces deployed in Mogadishu to support UNOSOM I and UNOSOM II were not under United Nations command or authority. The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) spearheaded by the United States was deployed in Mogadishu on 9 December 1992 and included military units from Australia, Belgium, Botswana, Canada, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, India, Italy, Kuwait, Morocco, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sweden, Tunisia, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, United Kingdom, and Zimbabwe.

Total cost: Approximately US $1,643 million.

UNOMUR-United Nations Observer Mission in Uganda-Rwanda

Duration: June 1993 to September 1994

Location: Uganda side of the Uganda-Rwanda border.

Strength: 81 military observers, 17 international staff, and 7 locally recruited personnel.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: To verify that no lethal weapons and ammunitions are transported across the border from Uganda into northern Rwanda. The tragic slaughter in Rwanda in April 1994 prevented UNOMUR from fully implementing its mandate. However, the Observer Mission played a useful role immediately after the conclusion of the Arusha Peace Agreement.

Composition: Military observers were provided by Bangladesh, Botswana, Brazil, Canada, Hungary, Netherlands, Senegal, and Zimbabwe.

Total cost: (From inception to December 1993): US $2.3 million; US $8 million net.

UNOMIG-United Nations Observer Mission in Georgia

Duration: August 1993 to present.

Location: Georgia.

Strength: Authorized: 107 military observers supported by 265 international and local civilian staff.

Mandate: To verify compliance with a cease-fire agreed to on 27 July 1993 between the government of Georgia and separatists in its northwestern region, Abkhazia. It would also investigate reports of cease-fire violations and attempt to resolve such incidents; and report to the Secretary-General about such violations. Before UNOMIG could be fully deployed, the cease-fire broke down, and, in accordance with the instructions of the Security Council resolution 858 (1993), deployment was halted. In May 1994, the Georgian and Abkhaz sides agreed to a cease-fire and separation of forces. UNOMIG then was to monitor the implementation of that agreement, and to verify the exit of troops and military equipment from the security zone. In December 1996, a human rights office was opened in Abkhazia to investigate reported or alleged violations.

Composition: Albania, Austria, Bangladesh, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Indonesia, Jordan, Republic of Korea, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, United Kingdom, United States, and Uruguay.

Annual cost: US $33.1 million.

UNOMIL-United Nations Observer Mission in Liberia

Duration: September 1993 to September 1997.

Location: Liberia.

Strength: 92 military personnel during electoral period (July 1997).

Mandate: To verify the Cotonou Peace Agreement signed in Cotonou, Benin, between the parties to the Liberian conflict that broke out in 1990 when the Liberian president, Samuel Doe, was overthrown, causing a complete breakdown of law and order. The UNOMIL was created at the invitation of the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS), which has taken various initiatives to peacefully settle the conflict, including the establishment of its own military observer group, ECOMOG. UNOMIL was to work with ECOMOG in implementing the Cotoneau Peace Agreement. ECOMOG has primary responsibility for the implementation of the agreement's provisions, and UNOMIL's role is to monitor the implementation procedures to verify their impartial application.

Composition: The military component was composed of personnel from Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, China, Congo, Czech Republic, Egypt, Guinea-Bissau, Hungary, India, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Slovakia, Sweden, and Uruguay.

Total cost: Approximately US $81.4 million.

UNMIH-United Nations Mission in Haiti

Duration: September 1993 to June 1996.

Location: Haiti.

Strength: 1,200 troops and military support personnel, and 300 civilian police; there was also a provision for about 160 international staff, 180 local staff, and 18 UN volunteers.

Fatalities: 6.

Mandate: Pending the creation of a new police force, assist the government in monitoring the activities of those members of the armed forces involved in carrying out police functions; provide guidance and advice; monitor the conduct of police operations; ensure that legal requirements are fully met. However, the advance unit of UNMIH was prevented from landing at Port au Prince on 11 October 1993. After the Haitian Constitutional government was restored in October 1994, UNMIH assisted the democratic Haitian government in securing stability, training the Haitian armed forces, and creating a separate police force. UNMIH also helped the legitimate constitutional government to organize free and fair elections for the summer of 1995.

Composition: Djibouti, France, Mali, Netherlands, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Togo, Trinidad and Tobago, and United States.

Total cost: Estimated at US $315.8 million.

UNAMIR-United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda

Duration: October 1993 to March 1996.

Location: Rwanda.

Strength: 2,548 military personnel, 60 police officers, 110 international civilian staff, and 61 locally recruited civilian staff.

Fatalities: 26.

Mandate: In the context of the Arusha peace agreement concluded in August 1993 between the government of Rwanda and the Rwandese Patriotic Front (RPF), UNAMIR originally was to contribute to the establishment and maintenance of a climate conducive to the secure installation and subsequent operation of the transitional government; assure the security of the capital city, Kigali; monitor a cease-fire agreement, including establishing an expanded demilitarized zone and demobilization procedures; monitor the security situation leading up to elections; assist with mine clearance. UNAMIR would also investigate alleged noncompliance with provisions of the peace agreement and provide security for the repatriation of Rwandese refugees. It would also escort and protect humanitarian activities. After renewed fighting in April 1994, UNAMIR's mandate was altered to permit intermediary action between warring parties, and to provide security for refugees and civilians at risk. After the cease-fire and installation of the new government, UNAMIR was adjusted to ensure stability and security in the northwestern and southwestern regions of Rwanda, to monitor and encourage the return of displaced persons, and support humanitarian aid, and national reconciliation.

Composition: At its peak strength UNAMIR was to be composed of 2,217 formed troops and 331 military observers provided by Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Canada, Congo, Ecuador, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Malawi, Mali, Nigeria, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Senegal, Tanzania, Togo, Tunisia, Uruguay, and Zimbabwe.

Total cost: Estimated at US $437.4 million.

UNASOG-United Nations Aozou Strip Observer Group

Duration: May 1994 to June 1994.

Location: Aozou Strip, Republic of Chad.

Strength: 9 military observers and 6 international staff.

Fatalities: None.

Mandate: Established to verify the departure of the Libyan administration and forces from the Aozou Strip in accordance with the decision of the International Court of Justice. UNASOG accomplished its mandate after both Chad and Libya declared the withdrawal complete.

Total cost: US $67,471.

UNMOT-United Nations Mission of Observers in Tajikistan

Duration: December 1994 to May 2000.

Location: Tajikistan.

Strength: 81 military observers, (as of June 1998), supported by international and local civilian staff.

Fatalities: 7.

Mandate: Established to monitor the implementation of the agreement between the Tajik government and the opposition on a temporary cease-fire along the Tajik-Afghan border, and to investigate reports of violations and report them to the UN and to the Joint Commission. UNMOT also served as a political liaison and coordinate services that help the efficient deployment of humanitarian assistance by the international community.

Composition: Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Czech Republic, Denmark, Ghana, Hungary, Indonesia, Jordan, Nepal, Nigeria, Poland, Switzerland, Ukraine, and Uruguay.

Total cost: Approximately US $50 million.

UNAVEM III-United Nations Angola Verification Mission III

Duration: February 1995 to June 1997.

Location: Angola.

Strength: 283 military observers, 7,869 troops and other military personnel, and 288 civilian police as of 30 June 1997.

Mandate: On 1 February 1995 the Secretary-General recommended to the Security Council that UNAVEM III take over from UNAVEM II to help adversarial parties in Angola restore peace and achieve national reconciliation. UNAVEM III was to provide mediation between the government and the UNITA party, to monitor and confirm the provision of legitimate government administration throughout Angola, and promote national reconciliation. UNAVEM III also was to control and verify the elimination of forces, monitor the cease-fire, and ensure the neutrality of the Angolan National Police.

Composition: Algeria, Bangladesh, Brazil, Bulgaria, Congo, Egypt, France, Guinea Bissau, Hungary, India, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Mali, Namibia, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Republic of Korea, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Tanzania, Ukraine, Uruguay, Zambia.

Fatalities: 32.

Total cost: More than US $800 million.

UNCRO-United Nations Confidence Restoration Operation

Duration: March 1995 to January 1996.

Location: Croatia.

Strength: 6,581 troops, 194 military observers and 296 civilian police, supported by international and locally recruited staff.

Fatalities: 16.

Mandate: UNCRO replaced UNPROFOR in Croatia, and was established to carry out the functions planned in the cease-fire agreement of March 1994 and the economic agreement of December 1994. UNCRO also monitored and reported the crossing of military personnel, supplies, equipment, and weapons over international borders between Croatia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, and Croatia and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro) at the border crossings. The mandate also facilitated the delivery of humanitarian aid to Bosnia and Herzegovina through the territory of Croatia, and monitored the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula.

Cost: See UNPROFOR, above.

UNPREDEP-United Nations Preventive Deployment Force

Duration: March 1995 to February 1999.

Location: The Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia Strength: 1,040 troops, 35 military observers, and 26 civilian police, 203 local and civilian staff.

Mandate: UNPREDEP was established on 31 March 1995 to replace UNPROFOR, but the mandate was basically the same: to monitor and report any developments in the border areas that could affect confidence and stability in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia.

Composition: Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, Ukraine, and United States.

Fatalities: 4.

Total cost: Approximately US $200 million.

UNMIBH-United Nations Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovina

Duration: December 1995 to present.

Location: Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Strength: 1,414 civilian police and 5 military support personnel; 1,569 international and local civilian staff.

Fatalities : 17.

Mandate: The Security Council established the UN International Police Task Force (IPTF) in December 1995 in accordance with the peace agreement signed by the leaders of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro). The IPTF monitors law enforcement facilities and activities, advises and trains law enforcement personnel, assesses threats to public order, advises authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina on operating effective civilian law enforcement agencies, and accompanies law enforcement personnel in some responsibilities.

Composition: Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Bulgaria, Canada, Chile, China, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, France, Germany, Ghana, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, and United States.

Annual cost: US $82.1 million.

UNMOP-United Nations Mission of Observers in Prevlaka

Duration: January 1996 to present.

Location: Prevlaka peninsula, Croatia. Strength: 27 military observers, supported by 9 international and local civilian staff.

Mandate: With the termination of UNCRO's mandate in January 1996, UNMOP became a continuation of the mission to monitor the demilitarization of the Prevlaka peninsula.

Composition: Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Nepal, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Switzerland, and Ukraine.

Annual cost: Included in UNMIBH, above.

UNTAES-United Nations Transitional Administration in Eastern Slavonia

Duration: January 1996 to January 1998.

Location: Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium, Croatia.

Strength: A total of 2,847 personnel, consisting of 2,346 troops, 97 military observers, and 404 civilian police as of 21 October 1997.

Mandate: UNTAES was set up with both military and civilian components. The military part supervised and assisted in the demilitarization of the region, monitored the return of refugees in cooperation with the UNHCR, and contributed to maintaining the peace by its continuing presence. The civilian part was to set up a temporary police force, monitor the prison system, promote the return of refugees, and to organize and verify elections.

Composition: Argentina, Austria, Bangladesh, Belgium, Brazil, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Ghana, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Nepal, Netherlands, New Zealand, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Poland, Russian Federation, Slovak Republic, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Ukraine, and United States.

Annual cost: US $285.8 million.

Total cost: Not available.

UNSMIH-United Nations Support Mission in Haiti

Duration: July 1996 to July 1997.

Location: Haiti.

Strength: 225 civilian police and 1,300 military personnel funded for a total of some 1,525 military personnel on 10 July 1997. The mission was supported by international and local civilian staff. A number of UN Volunteers also participated in the mission.

Mandate: UNSMIH was established to help the government of Haiti in the professionalization of the police and to assist in the creation and training of an effective national police force.

Composition: Civilian police personnel: Algeria, Canada, France, India, Mali, Togo, United States. Military personnel: Canada, Pakistan.

Total cost: US $57.2 million (estimate).

MINUGUA-United Nations Verification Mission in Guatemala

Duration: January to May 1997.

Location: Guatemala.

Strength: Mission total of 188 uniformed personnel, comprising 145 military observers and 43 civilian police.

Mandate: The peacekeeping mission within the larger civilian and humanitarian MINUGUA mission was established by the Security Council in resolution 1094 (1997) on 20 January 1997 for a three-month period to verify agreement on the cease-fire between the government of Guatemala and the Unidad Revolucionaria Naciónal Guatemalteca (URNG), which was signed at Oslo on 4 December 1996.

Total cost: US $4.6 million (estimated).

MONUA-United Nations Mission of Observers in Angola

Duration: July 1997 to February 1999.

Location: Angola.

Strength: 240 personnel all ranks; consisting of 222 troops, 12 military observers, and 6 civilian police monitors; and supported by international and locally recruited civilian staff as of May 1999.

Fatalities: 14 (as of 31 December 1998).

Mandate: MONUA was set up to assist the Angolan parties in consolidating peace and national reconciliation, enhancing confidence-building and creating an environment conducive to long-term stability, democratic development, and rehabilitation of the country.

Composition: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Brazil, Egypt, Ghana, India, Jordan, Pakistan, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, Uruguay, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Total cost: Approximately US $225.6 million.

UNTMIH-United Nations Transition Mission in Haiti

Duration: August to November 1997.

Location: Haiti.

Strength: 250 civilian police personnel and 50 military personnel.

Mandate: To assist the government of Haiti by supporting and contributing to the professionalization of the Haitian National Police (HNP).

Composition: Argentina, Benin, Canada, France, India, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, and United States.

Total cost: US $20.6 million.

MIPONUH-United Nations Civilian Police Mission in Haiti

Duration: December 1997 to March 2000.

Location: Haiti.

Strength: 300 civilian police personnel, including a special police unit, supported by a civilian establishment of some 72 international and 133 local personnel and 17 United Nations Volunteers.

Mandate: MIPONUH's main task was to assist the Government of Haiti in the professionalization of the Haitian National Police. MIPONUH, which succeeded the previous United Nations Missions in Haiti in December 1997, placed special emphasis on assistance at the supervisory level and on training specialized police units.

Composition: Argentina, Benin, Canada, France, India, Mali, Niger, Senegal, Togo, Tunisia, and United States.

Total cost: Not available.

UNPSG-United Nations Civilian Police Support Group

Duration: January 1998 to October 1998.

Location: Croatia's Danube region (Eastern Slavonia, Baranja, and Western Sirmium).

Strength: As of 30 September 1998, mission total: 114 police, supported by about 200 international and local civilian staff.

Mandate: UNPSG took over policing tasks on 16 January 1998 from UNTAES after that mission's mandate expired. The function of UNPSG was to continue monitoring the performance of the Croatian police in the Danube region, particularly with respect to the return of displaced persons, for a single nine-month period.

Composition: Argentina, Austria, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Finland, Indonesia, Ireland, Jordan, Kenya, Lithuania, Norway, Poland, Russian Federation, Sweden, Switzerland, Ukraine, and United States.

Total cost: Approximately US $30 million.

MINURCA-United Nations Mission in the Central African Republic

Duration: April 1998 to February 2000.

Location: Central African Republic. Strength: Maximum authorization: 1,350 troops; 25 civilian police.

Mandate: Assisted in maintaining and enhancing security and stability in Bangui and immediate vicinity and in maintaining law and order there; supervised and controlled storage, and monitored the final disposition of weapons retrieved in disarmament exercise; ensured security and freedom of movement of UN personnel; assisted in capacity-building efforts of the national police; provided advice and technical support regarding conduct of legislative elections.

Composition: Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, Chad, Côte d'Ivoire, Egypt, France, Gabon, Mali, Portugal, Senegal, Togo, and Tunisia.

Annual cost: US $33.3 million.

UNOMSIL-United Nations Mission of Observers in Sierra Leone

Duration: July 1998 to October 1999.

Location: Sierra Leone.

Strength: Military component as of 30 July 1999: 51, consisting of 49 military observers and 2 troops, supported by a 2-per-son medical team. Civilian component as of 4 June 1999: 53, consisting of 29 international civilian personnel and 24 locally recruited staff.

Mandate: UNOMSIL's military element was to monitor the military and security situation; monitor the disarmament and demobilization of former combatants concentrated in secure areas of the country. UNOMSIL's civilian element was to advise, in coordination with other international efforts, the government of Sierra Leone and local police officials on police practice, training, re-equipment and recruitment; advise on the reform and restructuring of Sierra Leone's police force and monitor progress; report on violations of international humanitarian law and human rights in Sierra Leone and assist the government in its efforts to address the country's human rights needs.

Composition: Bangladesh, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Nepal, New Zealand, Norway, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Sweden, Thailand, the United Republic of Tanzania, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and Zambia.

Annual cost: US $40.7 million.

UNMIK-United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo

Duration: June 1999 to present.

Location: Kosovo province of Yugoslavia.

Strength: About 1,957 personnel of UN and partner organizations on the ground, including about 1,297 UN civilian staff. Plus 3,159 civilian police deployed in all five regions of the province and at four border crossings as of 27 April 2000.

Mandate: In the wake of the Kosovar conflict, in which the Yugoslav government used hard-handed tactics to control an independence movement in the southern province, the UN Security Council set up UNMIK. Unprecedented in its scope, UNMIK encompasses the activities of three non-UN organizations under the UN's overall jurisdiction. UNMIK's mandate is to provide police and justice functions, and an interim civil administration (UN-led), spearhead reconstruction, including rebuilding the infrastructure (EU-led), and reestablish institutions (OSCE-led). A NATO-led force is to provide an international security presence.

Annual cost: US $456.4 million as of 2000.

UNTAET-United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor

Duration: October 1999 to May 2002.

Location: East Timor.

Strength: Maximum military component, 9,150; civilian police component, 1,640.

Fatalities : 17.

Mandate: As Portugal gave up its claim to East Timor in 1975, Indonesian troops moved in; the half-island territory was ruled by Indonesia from then until it became the independent state of East Timor on 20 May 2002. At elections on 30 August 1999, the people of East Timor voted for independence. UNTAET was established to administer the territory and exercise legislative and executive authority during the transition period. UNTAET consulted and worked in close cooperation with the East Timorese people.

Composition: Argentina, Australia, Austria, Bangladesh, Benin, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, Cape Verde, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, France, Gambia, Ghana, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Korea (Republic of), Malaysia, Mozambique, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Papua New Guinea, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Samoa, Senegal, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, United States, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Annual cost: US $476.8 million.

UNAMSIL-United Nations Mission in Sierra Leone

Duration: October 1999 to present.

Location: Sierra Leone.

Strength: As of September 2002, 17,410 military personnel, including 226 military observers. Other personnel include some 62 civilian police, and 303 international and 551 local civilian personnel.

Fatalities : 90.

Mandate: UNAMSIL is to cooperate with the government and the other parties in implementing the Lome Peace Agreement and to assist in the implementation of the disarmament, demobilization, and reintegration plan. On 7 February 2000, the Council revised the mandate of the Mission and expanded its size, as it did once again on 19 May 2000 and 30 March 2001.

Composition: Bangladesh, Bolivia, Cameroon, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Gambia, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Jordan, Kenya, Kyrgyzstan, Malaysia, Mali, Namibia, Nepal, New Zealand, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Russian Federation, Senegal, Slovakia, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Tanzania, Thailand, United Kingdom, Ukraine, Uruguay, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Annual cost: US $699.8 million.

MONUC-United Nations Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo

Duration: 30 November 1999 to present.

Location: Democratic Republic of the Congo and the subregion, including Namibia, Rwanda, Uganda, Zambia, and Zimbabwe.

Strength: 4,309 total uniformed personnel, including 455 mil tary observers; supported by 549 international and 636 local civilian personnel.

Fatalities : 11.

Mandate: After Democratic Republic of the Congo and five regional states signed the Lusaka Cease-fire Agreement in July 1999, the UN Security Council (in November 1999) set up MONUC to maintain liaison with the parties and carry out other tasks, incorporating UN personnel authorized in earlier resolutions. On 24 February 2000, the Council expanded the mission's mandate and size.

Composition: Algeria, Argentina, Bangladesh, Belgium, Benin, Bolivia, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Canada, China, Côte d'Ivoire, Czech Republic, Denmark, Egypt, France, Ghana, Guinea, India, Indonesia, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Malawi, Malaysia, Mali, Mongolia, Morocco, Mozambique, Nepal, Niger, Nigeria, Norway, Pakistan, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Russian Federation, Senegal, South Africa, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Switzerland, Tunisia, Turkey, Ukraine, United Kingdom, Uruguay, and Zambia.

Annual cost: US $608.3 million.

UNMEE-United Nations Mission in Ethiopia and Eritriea

Duration : 31 July 2000 to present.

Location : Eritrea and Ethiopia.

Strength : 4,129 military personnel, including 212 military observers; supported by 225 international and 257 local civilians.

Fatalities : 3.

Mandate : UMEE was established following the cessation of hostilities between Eritrea and Ethiopia in June 2000, to maintain liaison with the parties and establish the mechanism for verifying the cease-fire. In September, UNMEE's role was expanded to monitor the cessation of hostilities and assist in ensuring observance of security commitments. In August 2002, UNMEE eganged in demining in key areas to suport demarcation, and provided administrative and logistical suport for the Field Offices of the Boundary Commission.

Composition : Algeria, Australia, Bangladesh, Benin, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria, Canada, China, Croatia, Czech Republic, Denmark, Finland, France, Gambia, Ghana, Greece, India, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Kenya, Malaysia, Namibia, Nepal, Netherlands, Nigeria, Norway, Paraguay, Peru, Poland, Romania, Russian Federation, Singapore, Slovak Republic, South Africa, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Tanzania, Tunisia, Ukraine, United States, Uruguay and Zambia.

Annual cost : US $230.9 million.

UNMISET-United Nations Mission of Support in East Timor

Duration : 20 May 2002 to present.

Location : East Timor.

Strength : 122 military observers, 4,478 troops and 754 civilian police, supported by 469 international and 826 local civilians.

Fatalities : 1.

Mandate : East Timor became an independent state on 20 May 2002. UNMISET was established by the Security Council to provide assistance to East Timor over a period of two years until all operational responsibilities are fully devolved to the East Timor authorities, including law enforcement and security.

Composition : Argentina, Australia, Bangladesh, Bolivia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Brazil, Canada, Chile, China, Denmark, Egypt, Fiji, Ghana, Ireland, Japan, Jordan, Kenya, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Mozambique, Nepal, New Zealand, Niger, Norway, Pakistan, Philippines, Portugal, Russian Federation, Samoa, Singapore, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sri Lanka, Sweden, Thailand, Turkey, Ukraine, United States, United Kingdom, Uruguay, Vanuatu, Yugoslavia, and Zambia.

Annual cost : US $305.2 million.



User Contributions:

1
Report this comment as inappropriate
Mar 19, 2011 @ 4:16 pm
AM A SOLDIER SERVING WITH THE NIGERIAN ARMY PLEASE I NEEDED A SECONDMENT JOBS AT THE UNITED NATIONS MILITARY OBSERVER

Comment about this article, ask questions, or add new information about this topic: