As of 1 June 2002, UNIDO had a membership of 169, an increase of 21 countries since 1987. The growth in membership was mainly caused by the emergence of the newly independent nations of Central and Eastern Europe in the wake of the collapse of the Soviet Union. A few of the most industrialized countries chose to withdraw from UNIDO, claiming that the organization is inefficiently operated. In December 1995, the US decided to withdraw, followed by Germany in November 1996 and the United Kingdom in December 1996. The UK and Germany later rejoined, but as of 2002, the United States had not.