In 1997/98 Ukraine reformed its tax system. As of 2002, the standard corporate tax rate was 30% but a reduced rate of 9% was charged to mining enterprises, and increased rates of 45% and 60% applied to income from activities like gambling. Withholding taxes on income from royalties and interest is 15%, and 30% on dividend income.
The personal income tax schedule is progressive with six brackets ranging from 20% to 40%. Payroll taxes are 3.7%. For non-residents, the income tax schedule ranges from 0% to 20%.
The Ukraine's main indirect tax is its value-added tax (VAT), with a standard rate of 20%. A 0% VAT rate applies to exports and international transportation services.