As of 2002, nearly all of the previously state-owned retail establishments have been privatized. Chain stores, supermarkets, and brand-name specialty stores, many of which are owned by Ukrainians, have become more common in major cities. Department stores, smaller grocery and specialty stores, and bazaars are more common since prices at these establishments are more in line with lower and middle-class spending capabilities. About 40% to 60% of consumer goods are domestically produced. There are some successful foreign franchises, but the practice of franchising has not become wide spread. A value-added tax of 20% applies to most goods and services.