Just under 13% of Ukraine's total land area is composed of permanent pasture land. As of 2001, there were 9.4 million head of cattle, 7.6 million pigs, 963,000 sheep, 912,000 goats, 103 million chickens, and 20 million ducks. Horses, turkeys, goats, ducks, and rabbits are also bred and raised. Between 1990 and 2000, livestock production declined by 50%. Lack of finances for buying fuel pushed farmers in the public sector to sell their cattle abroad, mostly to Asian buyers. In 2001, meat production included: beef, 646,000 tons (down from 1,986,000 tons in 1990); pork, 591,000 tons (1,576,000 tons in 1990); and poultry, 239,000 tons (708,000 tons in 1990). There are several factors involved with Ukraine's declining meat production: decentralization of meat processing, with greater use of processing facilities at the farms; lack of cheap credits to buy animals; and antiquated meat processing equipment. Milk and egg production in 2001 amounted to 13.4 million tons and 546,000 tons, respectively. Milk and eggs are exported to the other CIS members. In 2001, exports of meat and meat products were valued at $205,133,000; milk, dairy, and eggs, $274,585,000.