The major scientific learned societies, headquartered in Bern, are the Swiss Academy of Sciences, founded in 1815, and the Swiss Academy of Engineering Sciences, founded in 1981. About twothirds of the funds for Swiss research and development—a high proportion by world standards—are supplied by industry and the rest by federal and cantonal governments. In 1987–97, expenditures for research and development totaled 2.6% of GNP. In the same period, 3,000 scientists and 1,374 technicians per million people were engaged in research and development. The Swiss National Science Foundation was established in 1952 to finance noncommercial research for which funds would not otherwise be available. Most such spending is in the important chemicals sector. The Ministry of Public Economy, the center for federal agricultural research, has six research stations. In 1998, high-tech exports were valued at $12 billion and accounted for 16% of manufactured exports.