A large communications satellite station was made operational in Ivanica during the 1970s. Scientific and technological policies are developed and implemented by the Federal Ministry of Development, Science and Environment; the Ministry of Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia; and the Ministry of Education and Science of the Republic of Montenegro. As of 1999, there were an estimated 17,300 scientists engaged in scientific and technological research in Yugoslavia (16,480 in Serbia and 821 in Montenegro). There were 111 registered research institutions in the country (98 in Serbia and 13 in Montenegro) and seven universities.
A nationwide scientific and technological development policy formulated in 1994 created 250 five-year basic research projects in all scientific disciplines.