The government provides obligatory health care to citizens for preventive, diagnostic, therapeutic, and rehabilitative services. There were 228 health institutions and about 3,000 other clinics, mostly private. Hospital and clinic beds numbered 56,107 in 1995, for a ratio of 188 persons per bed. As of 1999, there were an estimated 2 physicians and 5.3 hospital beds per 1,000 people. Other medical personnel as of 1995 include 4,100 dentists, 2,260 pharmacists, and 56,770 other medical workers. The University Clinical Center in Belgrade conducts about nine million examinations and 46,000 emergency operations per year and functions as one of the World Health Organization's largest diagnostic and referral centers.
In 1999, infant mortality was reported at 16.5 per 1,000 live births in Serbia and 11 in Montenegro. Overall mortality was 9.7 per 1,000 people in Serbia and 7.4 in Montenegro. Average life expectancy in 1999 was 73.5 for Serbia and 76.3 for Montenegro.
HIV prevalence was 0.1 in 1999; that year, there were 47 cases of tuberculosis per 100,000 people. In 1998 the maternal mortality rate was 10 per 100,000 live births; in 2000 the fertility rate was 1.7.