Immigrants come chiefly from Italy; emigration is mainly to Italy, the US, France, and Belgium. Foreigners who have been resident in San Marino for 30 years can become naturalized citizens.
In 1999, the net migration rate was 4.23 migrants per 1,000 population. In 2000 the number of migrants living in San Marino was 9,000, approximately one-third of the total population. The government views the migration levels as satisfactory.