The Russian Academy of Sciences, founded in 1725, is the chief coordinating body for scientific research in Russia through its science councils and commissions. It has sections of physical, technical, and mathematical sciences; chemical, technological, and biological sciences, and earth sciences, and controls a network of nearly 300 research institutes. The Russian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, founded in 1929, has departments of plant breeding and genetics; arable farming and the use of agricultural chemicals; feed and fodder crops production; plant protection; livestock production; veterinary science; mechanization, electrification, and automation in farming; forestry; the economics and management of agricultural production; land reform and the organization of land use; land reclamation and water resources; and the storage and processing of agricultural products. It controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes. It supervises a number of research institutes, experimental and breeding stations, dendraria and arboreta. The Russian Academy of Medical Sciences, founded in 1944, has departments of preventive medicine, clinical medicine, and medical and biological sciences, and controls a network of nearly 100 research institutes.
The Russian Federation in 1987–97 had 3,587 scientists and engineers and 600 technicians engaged in research and development. In the same period, research and development expenditures totaled 0.9% of GNP. Russia has nearly 250 universities and institutes offering courses in basic and applied sciences. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 50% of university enrollment. In 1998, high-tech exports were valued at $2.4 billion and accounted for 12% of manufactured exports.