The right to housing is guaranteed to all citizens by the constitution, but providing for adequate housing for all has become a problem in a time of major economic reforms. In the Soviet-era, most housing (state-owned) was provided free or at very low costs for many citizens. Since 2002, economic reform has called for many residents to begin paying more of the costs for rent, maintenance, and utilities. The government still allows somewhat generous subsidies for low-income families. But the main housing problem seems to be in maintenance and renovation of buildings that are in urgent need of both structural repairs and upgrades in utility systems. As of 1999, about 60% of the housing stock has been privatized.