Some 87.3 million hectares (215.7 million acres) are pastureland, representing just over 5% of the total area. In 2001, the livestock population included: cattle, 27,294,000; sheep, 12,561,000; and pigs, 15,707,000. Russia also had 1.6 million horses, 335.6 million chickens, and 2.5 million turkeys in 2001.
The 2001 meat production amounts included (in 1,000 tons): beef, 1,872; pork, 1,498; mutton, 113; and poultry, 884. In 1999, Russia's livestock production was only 50% of what it had been in 1990. Pork production has suffered a similar decline and has become the most expensive meat sold in Russia. The Russian hog sector further contracted in 1999 due to the 1998 ruble devaluation, weak demand, high credit costs, and inadequate grain supplies. Milk production in 2001 was estimated at 32.6 million tons (down from 55.7 million tons in 1991), and egg production amounted to 19.6 billion in 2001 (down from 47.4 billion in 1990). Infrastructural and distributional problems have only exacerbated the declining production. Most Russian dairy farms are reported to be unprofitable due to low quality dairy cows, limited supplies of quality feed, and lack of support services. Continued decline in livestock production, especially poultry, as well as the rapid growth of imports have been a source of trade friction and political debate calling for restrictions on food imports into Russia. In 2001, Russia imported nearly $1.7 billion in meat and meat products.