In 1996, Portugal had 18 scientific and technological learning societies, and 20 scientific and technological research institutes. The leading scientific academy is the Lisbon Academy of Sciences, founded in 1779. In 1996, Portugal had 27 universities and colleges offering courses in basic and applied sciences. Attached to the University of Lisbon is the Museum and Laboratory of Mineralogy and Geology, founded in 1837. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 36% of university enrollment. Total government expenditure on research and development was 0.6% of GNP in 1987–97; 1,182 scientists and engineers and 167 technicians per million people were engaged in research and development.