Under the Salazar and Caetano regimes, the cooperative movement was generally superseded by state-controlled groups called juntas nacionais. The principal current organizations are syndicates, the majority of which are linked to the national trade union confederation; residents' commissions; workers' commissions; and popular assemblies. Many of these associations, particularly in rural areas, are involved in local community improvement projects as well as political and cultural activities. There are four chambers of commerce and three main industrial organizations, the oldest of which, the Industrial Association of Porto, dates from 1849.
The Academy of Sciences Lisbon is primarily a scholarly and research organization. National youth organizations include Association of Young Farmers of Portugal, Communist Youth of Portugal, International Friendship League of Portugal, Monarchist Youth of Portugal, the Scout Federation of Portugal, and YMCA/YWCA. There are several sports associations in the country. The Kiwanis and Lion's Clubs also have active programs. Amnesty International and the Red Cross have national chapters.