Portugal - Media

The domestic telegraph and telephone systems are wholly government-operated. In 1998 there were 5.3 million main line telephones in Portugal with 3 million mobile cellular phones. Direct radiotelephone service connects Portugal with its former and current overseas provinces in Africa and Asia. The government broadcasting network, Radiodifusão Portuguesa, and Radio Renascenca, a religious network, operate AM and FM stations. The state-owned television network, Radiotelevisão Portuguesa, offers color broadcasts on two channels. In 1998, there were 47 AM and FM 172 radio stations, as well as 62 television stations. In 2000, there were 304 radios and 630 television sets for every 1,000 people. The same year, there were about 299 personal computers in use for every 1,000 people, with 16 Internet service providers serving about 2 million users in 2001.

During the factional struggles of 1975, the press became a battleground between Communists and other left-wing factions. The most noteworthy episode was the takeover of the Socialist República by Maoist printers in May 1975. Communist influence in the press was abruptly curtailed after the nation's press was closed down by the new center-left coalition government in November 1975 and subsequently reorganized. Nearly all the newspapers had reappeared by the end of the year, in more moderate guises. In 1976, the government nationalized several newspaper publishing groups. The circulations of state-owned newspapers decreased during the late 1970s. The constitution of 1976 guaranteed freedom of the press. The principal daily newspapers (with their estimated 2002 circulations) include the following:


The weekly paper Expresso has a circulation of 160,000.
Correo da Manhã Independent 85,000
Diario de Noticias Communist 75,560
Publico NA 75,000
Diario Popular Leftist 62,000
A Capital Leftist 40,000
Jornal de Noticias Leftist 90,000
Comercio do Porto Moderate 30,300
OPrimeiro de Janeiro Conservative 20,200
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