There was a net emigration of 6,000 in 1979–88 to other Soviet republics. This grew to 16,300 in 1989 and 29,800 in 1990. Since independence in 1991, Moldova has experienced difficulties. A short but violent civil war in 1992—the Trans-Dniestrian conflict—resulted in the internal displacement of some 51,000 people, and the external displacement of some 56,000 refugees who fled to the Ukraine. There is no central authority in Moldova that registers and determines claims for refugee status In 2000, the net migration rate was -2.5 migrants per 1,000 population, a significant change from -5.8 per 1,000 in 1990. The government views the immigration level as satisfactory, but the emigration level as too high.