Moldova has scant oil reserves and no refineries. Refined oil products and natural gas come from Russia, Ukraine, and Belarus, accounting for 99% of the fuel supply for Moldova's thermal power plants. In 2001 Moldovans consumed about 21,000 barrels of oil per day. Natural gas consumption fluctuates from year to year, totaling 1.4 billion cu m (49.42 billion cu ft) in 1995 and 2.1 billion cu m (74 billion cu ft) in 2000. Moldova has a modest coal industry, with reserves estimated at 3 billion tons in 2002.
Generating capacity has declined since Moldova gained its independence in 1992 due to lack of funds, civil disturbances, and a general economic downturn in the 1990s. Total installed generating capacity in 2001 was 1,030,000 kW. Total electricity generation in 2000 was 3.4 billion kWh, of which 90.4% was from fossil fuels and 9.6% from hydropower. Consumption of electricity in 2000 was 3.7 billion kWh. Moldova traditionally has exported electricity to Ukraine and Bulgaria.
Moldova has implemented a national energy conservation program and is seeking alternative energy sources for self-sufficiency. It is developing programs for solar, wind, and geothermal power.