The former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia uses only low levels of technology for its agriculture and mining industries. Oil refining is performed by distillation only.
The Macedonian Academy of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1967 at Skopje, has sections of biological and medical sciences and of mathematical and technical sciences. The country also has an Association of Sciences and Arts, founded in 1960 at Bitola, as well as specialized learned societies concerned with physics, pharmacy, geology, medicine, mathematics and computers, veterinary surgery, engineering, forestry, and agriculture. Macedonia has research institutes dealing with geology, natural history, cotton, animal breeding, tobacco, animal husbandry, and water development.
The University of Skopje (founded in 1949) has faculties of civil engineering, agriculture, veterinary medicine, forestry, medicine, pharmacy, mechanical engineering, electrotechnical engineering, technology and metallurgy, natural and mathematical sciences, stomatology, and geology and mining. In 1987–97, science and engineering students accounted for 47% of university enrollment. The Natural History Museum of Macedonia (founded in 1926) is located in Skopje. Macedonia in 1987–97 had 1,335 scientists and engineers and 546 technicians per million people engaged in research and development.